Medical

Flu symptoms, treatment, and vaccine effectiveness

Symptoms, treatment, and effectiveness of flu vaccine: Flu season has arrived again. This year, the virus of this disease seems to be more active in all countries. Several people have died from this disease around the world, according to reports. It is estimated that 5 to 10 percent of adults and 20 to 30 percent of children worldwide suffer from influenza. Flu is usually a seasonal disease that occurs in temperate regions during the winter. During the rainy season, influenza flows usually peak several times, as there is no clear seasonal pattern in the tropics. Those at risk of death include the young, the elderly, and those with other health issues. Around 3 to 5 million severe illness cases and 290,000 to 650,000 deaths are caused by the flu every year.

It is especially likely that children, the elderly, pregnant women, people with chronic illnesses, and health care workers will catch the flu or other related illnesses such as pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis, and ear infections. Children under the age of two are particularly vulnerable. The best way to protect children under 6 months from the flu is to vaccinate people who come in contact with them.

A weakened immune system puts older adults at greater risk than younger healthy people. Over half of all hospital-related deaths and most influenza deaths occur in the elderly.

A woman who is pregnant or who has given birth within two weeks of the flu is more likely to get it than a non-pregnant woman. Chronic health problems such as: are more likely to result in complications of the disease:

Asthma

Diabetes

Heart disease

Obesity

People with cancer, HIV, or other diseases that weaken the immune system

There are two types of flu that are most prevalent this year: H1N1 and H3N2. About 90% of influenza diagnoses are H1N1, the most severe form.

Pig flu is technically referred to as swine flu. Humans are sometimes infected with the flu virus by pigs, mainly pig breeders and veterinarians. People with swine flu can sometimes pass it on to others. A combination of swine, bird, and human viruses caused H1N1.

Humans became infected with H1N1 during the 2009 to 2010 flu season. In that year, the World Health Organization declared H1N1 flu a global epidemic due to the number of people who became infected worldwide. Virus names have changed since then. H1N1v is the new name for H1N1. In this case, v stands for “variant” and indicates that the virus usually circulates in animal populations, but has also been observed in humans. The virus, H3N2v, has been circulating in human populations since 2011.

The influenza virus is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. Based on its central proteins, influenza viruses are classified as types A, B, and C. Humans are only susceptible to types A and B. Based on the glycoproteins on their surface, influenza A viruses can be classified into subtypes. The glycoproteins have hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) activities (the letters N and H stand for neuraminidase and hemagglutinin, respectively). Different compounds can be formed by 16 subsets of hemagglutinin and nine subsets of neuraminidase. These viruses have high mutation rates and frequent genetic recombination, resulting in a wide variety of antigens. The frequency of small point mutations that cause small changes (antigenic drift) is high. In the course of the year, influenza outbreaks are caused by antigenic drives that allow the virus to escape the immune system’s detection process. HA antigens undergo significant changes due to recombination between different subgroups A. Antigenic shifts that lead to new pandemic strains (strains that lead to the global epidemic of the disease) are rare occurrences that occur through recombination between human and animal subtypes, such as the H1N1 influenza virus, which did not occur in human populations as a new recombination. Neither the current nor past seasons of human influenza viruses are genetically related to this virus.

Avian influenza is a disease caused by infection with the influenza A virus. Domestic birds and other birds and animals can be infected by the virus that is naturally present in wild bluebirds. Humans are rarely infected by avian influenza viruses. 

What are the most common symptoms of the flu?

Flu is an acute respiratory infection that can range in severity from asymptomatic to fatal. Flu symptoms include fever, chills, sore throat, dry cough, and headache, cold, muscle aches, and extreme tiredness. Vomiting and diarrhea are less common symptoms. Diarrhea and vomiting are more common in children with the flu. There are some people who do not experience a fever when they get the flu. Among the complications of influenza are pneumonia, middle ear infection, and exacerbation of chronic conditions. People with weakened immune systems, the elderly, infants, and young children are more likely to contract the disease. People with chronic diseases and the elderly are more likely to die from seasonal flu.

The H1N1 flu has similar characteristics to seasonal flu, but is more active during the summer season in the Northern Hemisphere, has a higher mortality rate in young healthy adults, and has a higher prevalence of viral pneumonia.

Transfer:

Coughing and sneezing release droplets into the air that are responsible for respiratory transmission. Viruses can be transmitted through the air over short distances, especially in enclosed and crowded environments. Direct injection of the virus and hand infection are other possible transmission routes.

You should follow these steps if you think you have the flu:

Unless you need medical attention, stay home, rest, and avoid contact with others. To prevent the spread of the flu, stay away from others for at least 24 hours after the fever subsides.

Flu symptoms can cause more severe warning signs. In children, these symptoms include:

Breathing difficulty

Bruising of the skin

Fever accompanied by skin rash

No interaction

Do not drink liquids

The symptoms improve, but then return with a more severe fever and cough

 

Dangerous symptoms in adults include:

Difficulty breathing

Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen

Dizziness or confusion

Severe or persistent vomiting

 

What is the treatment for the flu?

After 20 years, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a new drug for influenza: Balozavir Marboxil. As well as oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir, the new drug was added to three existing antiviral drugs.

The symptoms of the flu can be reduced and the duration of the illness can be reduced with antiviral drugs. A doctor prescribes these prescription drugs in different forms, such as tablets, liquids, inhalants, and intravenous solutions. There may also be side effects associated with these drugs.

Because studies have shown that medications work best during the first two days of illness, it is critical to start them as soon as possible.

Antibiotics cannot be used to treat the flu, so avoid taking them arbitrarily.

Influenza prevention:

Daily preventive measures are essential in addition to vaccination. Make sure you stay away from sick people and wash your hands frequently. It is best to get the flu vaccine before the spread of the disease in the community, as antibodies take about two weeks to build up in the body after vaccination. In the flu season, avoid enclosed spaces as much as possible and avoid close contact with people who have acute respiratory infections.

 

What is the effectiveness of the flu vaccine?

The two influenza virus types (A and B) can infect humans in many different ways. For flu vaccines to be prepared in time for the outbreak season, experts must decide months in advance. Vaccines are not fully compatible with influenza viruses because their strains change rapidly.

A vaccine’s effectiveness may be limited even when it is well-matched. The majority of vaccines are made using eggs as a culture medium, which can modify the virus and affect its effectiveness.

Experts study circulating samples of the flu virus during the flu season to determine how well the vaccine protects against them. In order to decide whether to make the next vaccine, they use this information. Most vaccines protect against two strains A (H1N1 and H3N2) and two strains B this year.

It’s likely that you’ve heard two things about the flu vaccine: first, that you should get it every year, and second, that it may not fully protect you from the disease. It is true in both cases. It has been shown that the vaccine protects you against the flu, but it cannot be guaranteed to be 100 percent effective. Before the flu season begins, these vaccines are made. Scientists have a good idea of what works and what doesn’t after years of making flu vaccines. 

What is the first person to get a flu shot?

Children between the ages of 6 months and 4 years (59 months)

Flu complications, hospitalization, and death are generally more common among people 65 and older, but people 50 and older are also a priority group for vaccination because they are more likely to develop chronic diseases. This can lead to more severe flu complications)

Chronic lung diseases (including asthma) and cardiovascular diseases (excluding isolated hypertension), kidney, liver, neurological, blood, or metabolic diseases (including diabetes mellitus) are excluded.

Those whose immune systems have been suppressed (for instance, by taking certain medications or contracting HIV)

Women who are pregnant or who become pregnant during the flu season, as well as women up to two weeks after giving birth

Following a flu infection, people 6 months to 18 years old take aspirin or salicylate-containing medications and develop Ray Syndrome.

Nursing homes and other long-term care facilities

Obese individuals

Staff members in health care

Those who work with or care for children under five and the elderly

 

Is there anyone who shouldn’t get a flu shot?

Vaccines should not be given to people who have had Guillain-Barré syndrome within six weeks of their previous flu vaccination. Individuals who are allergic to a component of the vaccine in a severe and deadly way.

 

Here are ten ways to prevent colds and flu:

Many people wonder how to avoid getting the flu and colds. Getting sick can stress the immune system and increase the risk of autoimmune diseases, thyroid dysfunction, and other chronic illnesses. Here are ten natural ways to support your immune system and prevent colds and flu:

 

Frequent handwashing is important:

The best way to prevent the flu and other respiratory infections is to wash your hands frequently. You must thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds to kill viruses. With contaminated hands, do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth.

 

Your bowels need to be repaired:

Since many of your immune systems are located in your gut, it is the gateway to your health. Ensure that your bowels are healthy. Use quality probiotics that contain different strains of bacteria to improve the bacterial condition of the intestine. Keeping your gut bacteria at a healthy level allows it to fight infections.

 

Consume less sugar and alcohol:

Sugar can suppress your immune system and make it hard for your body to fight infections, including the flu virus. Additionally, it puts you at risk for intestinal infections such as Candida and SIBO, which suppress the immune system and cause bowel leakage. The central nervous system and, therefore, the immune system are also suppressed by alcohol consumption.

 

Take steps to reduce your stress:

The immune system is suppressed by stress. Stress can be reduced by practicing yoga and meditation.

 

Sleep for 7-9 hours every night:

Our bodies rid themselves of toxins during sleep. The immune system can be significantly weakened by chronic insomnia.

 

Boost safety by using safety boosters:

Supplement your immune system with an immune-boosting supplement. Colostrum can be found in several types of supplements. IgA antibodies, the body’s first line of defense, are increased by immunoglobulins in colostrum. By producing IgA antibodies, intestinal immune cells can destroy harmful pathogens and toxins.

Supplement with glutathione and turmeric:

Immune system function depends on antioxidants. In addition to strengthening the immune system and detoxifying the liver, glutathione is the body’s main antioxidant. Turmeric’s orange pigment, curcumin, is a free radical scavenger that improves joint health and cardiovascular health. 

 

Optimize your vitamin D levels:

Immunity, infection resistance, and autoimmunity are all regulated by vitamin D. Increasing vitamin D intake can improve immune function. You should take a quality vitamin D supplement if you do not eat foods that contain vitamin D. Be sure to follow the directions when taking supplements because too much can be dangerous. Vitamin D supplements containing vitamin K are recommended.

 

Bone broth is good for you:

The immune system is strengthened by bone broth. According to a study published in the journal Chest, eating chicken soup during a respiratory infection reduced upper respiratory symptoms and white blood cell counts. It is thought that this food’s inflammation-reducing properties are attributed to amino acids such as proline and glycine.

 

Get plenty of exercise:

By increasing blood flow, exercise boosts the immune system. When the blood flow increases, antibodies can move faster in the bloodstream, and the immune system can fight disease more effectively. By reducing stress hormones and relieving stress, exercise can also strengthen the immune system.

 

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