Dental anatomy, diseases, and treatments for teeth

It is one of the most important parts of the human body that is easily damaged and infected, but its care is practical and straightforward.

In addition to chewing food, these organs also play a crucial role in speech. The appearance of people can also affect the beauty of teeth. A person’s social class can also be represented by this member! Having a few decayed teeth makes one think one is not in a good financial position or cares little about his or her appearance. However, it will not be insignificant to gain a better understanding of such a member. 

The following parts make up each tooth.


The enamel is the outermost and most challenging part of the tooth. Calcium phosphate is a hard mineral that makes up this part of the tooth. Light passes through the enamel because it is transparent.

It is the dentin, which is covered by enamel, that determines the primary color of your teeth. Some beverages, such as tea, soft drinks, fruit juices, and cigarettes, can stain enamel. In order to maintain the health of your teeth, it is important to see the dentist regularly and clean your teeth on a daily basis.



The ivory is located at the bottom of the enamel. The dentin is composed of hard tissues and microscopic tubes. Heat or cold can enter these tubular pathways if the enamel is damaged. Dentin consists of 45% hydroxylapatite, 33% organic matter, and 22% water. Ivory jaundice can significantly alter the overall color of the tooth because of the enamel’s transparency. Dentin has a lower mineral content than enamel, so it is less brittle and can protect enamel. First, dentin develops over a lifetime, and second, it is more sensitive to enamel than enamel is to dentin.

Tooth marrow:

A tooth’s pulp or marrow is the soft, inner part. Pulp contains blood vessels and nerves. Usually, the pulp of the tooth is alive and active, but caries and damage to the arteries and nerves can kill it. These cases require endodontic treatment or neurosurgery.



Teeth roots are firmly attached to the jaw and gums by this layer of connective tissue. In cement, 45 to 50 percent of the structure is hydroxyapatite mineral, and 50 to 55 percent is organic matter and water.


Proteoglycans and collagen make up the organic composition of this part. Vascular tissues surround this part, which feeds its internal cells without blood vessels. Dentin is darker and yellower than this part of the tooth. Compared to other mineral tissues, it contains the highest amount of fluoride.


Periodontal ligament:

A periodontal ligament is a collagenous tissue that holds teeth in place. One side of the periodontal ligament is attached to the cementum, and the other side is attached to the alveolar bone.

There is no connection between this tissue and the tooth. In other words, a tooth can be perfectly healthy but its supporting tissue weakens and loses its function due to disease.

Types of teeth:

The average adult has 32 teeth in his mouth, all of which have already fallen out by the age of 13. The following are some of these teeth:


* Anterior teeth

The anterior teeth are the eight middle teeth of the upper and lower jaws. Food is cut and sliced with these teeth.


* Fangs

The four canines are located right next to the anterior teeth. Food decomposes on this organ’s sharp surface. Both deciduous and permanent teeth have four canines.


* Small mill 

Unlike the anterior teeth and canines, the surface of this organ is smooth and even. It is located between the canines and the large mill of this organ. Food is crushed by the milk of this organ. Our mouths contain eight small mill teeth.

* Large mill 

Despite the large mill’s teeth being at the back of the mouth, it is the best food mill. It is the largest organ and has a large surface area for breaking down food. The primary deciduous teeth have eight large molar teeth, and the permanent teeth have twelve large molar teeth.

*Wisdom teeth

The growth of this type of organ begins at the age of 18, but it is often pulled out because it causes other teeth to move. It is recommended by some doctors to remove this type of tooth even if it is healthy.

Diseases and problems related to the teeth

There are a variety of bacteria living inside the mouth. As a result, these organs of our body are susceptible to all kinds of illnesses and problems.

Among the problems and diseases are:

Dental caries

The enamel and its deep parts can be damaged by bacteria that are not killed by toothbrushes and saliva. In contrast to other teeth, the incisors are more damaged. This organ develops cavities called tooth decay. At first, the cavities are small but gradually become larger. Cavities do not cause pain in the early stages. As a result, they are not treated promptly. It is possible to diagnose caries promptly with regular dental visits.

Statistics show that caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. It is also possible for babies’ teeth to rot due to this problem.

Tooth decay symptoms include:

Symptoms of tooth decay vary depending on their severity. Symptoms include:

  • Tooth sensitivity
  • toothache
  • Visible holes in the teeth
  • White or black spots On this organ
  • Causes of tooth decay


Dental plaque is a sticky substance that sticks to teeth and causes decay. Plaque is composed of the following components:

  • bacterias
  • Saliva
  • acid
  • Food particles

There are bacteria in everyone’s mouth. Bacteria in your mouth convert sugar into acid when you eat or drink sugary foods. Plaque starts on the tooth in this case. It is therefore necessary to use a toothbrush after eating sugary foods and drinks.

Plaque sticks to the tooth and destroys the enamel. There is a risk of tooth decay for everyone. However, some people are more prone to caries than others:

  • Those who consume a lot of sweet and sour foods and drinks
  • Non-brushers and non-flossers
  • Fluoride deficiency in people
  • Dry mouthed people
  • Overeaters and anorexics
  • Enamel is recommended for people with gastroesophageal reflux disease and acidic fluid that returns from the stomach.

Food particles can easily be trapped inside the grooves of mill teeth. Mill teeth make flossing more difficult. As a result, these teeth are more likely to decay.


Periodontal disease occurs when deep tooth structures swell as a result of poor oral hygiene. The soft tissue and bones that support the teeth are destroyed in acute gum infections. This is why periodontitis can lead to the loss of this organ. In spite of this, this infection can be prevented. The risk of dental disease can be significantly reduced by brushing twice a day and having regular dental checkups. 

Symptoms of periodontitis:

Gums that are healthy are firm and pale pink in color. Fitting into the surrounding teeth at the same time. These are some of the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease:

  • Gums that are swollen or swollen
  • Gums that are pale red, dull, or reddish in color
  • Tingling gums
  • Gums that are bleeding
  • Your teeth are longer than normal because of the gums behind them.
  • Teeth with new spaces between them
  • Gum and tooth wounds
  • Bad Breath
  • Loosening of teeth
  • Painful chewing
  • Bite with your teeth in a different position.

Periodontitis comes in several forms. There are several types of periodontitis, including:

  • Most adults suffer from chronic periodontitis. It can, however, also occur in children. Plaque formation causes periodontitis, which progresses slowly. It is possible for the situation to improve or deteriorate.
  • A small number of people suffer from invasive periodontitis in childhood or early adulthood.
  • A necrotizing periodontal disease is characterized by the death of gum tissue, tooth ligaments, and abutment bones. People with suppressed immune systems are more likely to suffer from this type of periodontitis. Cancer patients and HIV patients fall into this category.


There is swelling around the crown of the tooth and on the surface of the gums. Gingivitis can be caused by plaque and tartar. An accumulation of plaque or bacteria on the teeth usually causes gingivitis, which is inflammation of the gums. Left untreated, it can lead to periodontal disease.

Gingivitis is characterized by redness and inflammation of the gums. These conditions also cause the patient’s gums to bleed easily when brushed. Similarly to many dental diseases, gingivitis can be treated with regular brushing and flossing. It may also be treated with an antiseptic mouthwash.

In mild cases, the person may not realize he or she has gingivitis. In any case, if symptoms are observed, they should be taken seriously and treated as soon as possible.

Types of gingivitis:
  • Dental plaque can cause gingivitis, as can systemic factors, medications, or malnutrition.
  • Non-plaque gingivitis: This type of gingivitis is caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In addition, genetic factors, allergic reactions, wounds, or the body’s reaction to foreign factors, such as prostheses, can also cause this type of gingivitis.
Causes of gingivitis:

Bacterial plaque accumulation between and around the teeth is the most common cause of gingivitis. Plaques stimulate immune responses that can destroy gum tissue or gums. The condition can also lead to more severe complications, such as tooth loss.

Plaque on teeth is a biofilm that accumulates naturally. Plaques are usually caused by bacteria adhering to the smooth surface of teeth. Although bacteria may protect teeth from harmful microorganisms, plaque can cause tooth decay and periodontal conditions such as gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

If dental plaque is not adequately removed from the tooth surface, it can form plaque or tartar near the gum line. Both the mass and tartar are yellow and should be professionally cleaned. Plaque and tartar also cause the gums to swell and bleed immediately.

Oral diseases are caused by other factors as well

The following conditions can increase the risk of oral problems:

  • Changes in hormones: Puberty and pregnancy can lead to sensitive gums and inflammation.
  • Gingivitis is also associated with diabetes and HIV.

Medications: Some medications may adversely affect oral health, especially if they reduce saliva flow. Drugs such as Dilantin, an anticonvulsant, and some antianginals can cause abnormal gum tissue growth.

  • Smoking: Smokers are more likely to develop oral diseases than non-smokers.
  • The risk of gingivitis increases with age.
  • Gum disease is more likely to develop if you eat a diet that lacks vitamin C.
  • People whose parents have had gingivitis are more likely to develop it. The reason may be that some of the body’s bacteria are formed at birth.

Tooth tartar

Rather than being removed from the tooth surface, plaque mixes with minerals and becomes tartar, a more rigid material. Professional cleaning is required to remove tartar. No matter how well you take care of your teeth, there will always be bacteria in your mouth. Plaque is formed when bacteria combine with proteins and food products. The plaque sticks to the gum line’s bottom on teeth, dental fillings, and other items. Plaque carries bacteria that can damage tooth enamel and cause cavities.

If Tartar, also known as tooth mass, forms under the gums when plaque remains on the tooth. In addition to causing gum disease, toothpaste is rough and porous, and should be removed with special dental tools.

What are the effects of tartar on teeth and gums?

Brushing and flossing can be difficult when tartar is present. Cavities and tooth decay can also be caused by plaque or tartar.

You can suffer adverse consequences if you have tartar above your gum line. This causes bacteria in toothpaste to irritate and damage your gums. Gum disease will worsen over time.

Solutions for removing plaques

Plaque is a sticky film formed by bacteria inside the mouth on the teeth. Plaque on your teeth for a long time can lead to unpleasant consequences.

Plaque weakens teeth and causes decay and gum disease. Even though it is impossible to eliminate all bacteria from the mouth, you can take steps to prevent them from accumulating on your teeth:

At least twice a day, brush your teeth

Brushing is a necessity for everyone. But how often should it be done? Plaque should be removed as soon as it forms by brushing after each meal. If you don’t brush before bed, plaque has a chance to settle on your teeth all night!

Make sure your toothbrush is soft. Your gums may be irritated by hard toothbrushes. You should replace your toothbrush every three to four months. Your toothbrush will not work properly if it is old. When brushing, follow these tips:

  1. You should hold your toothbrush at a 45-degree angle to your gums when brushing.
  2. Softly brush your bristles in a circular motion
  3.  Freshen your breath by brushing your tongue.
  4. Increase your brushing time to two minutes.
  5. In the meantime, electronic toothbrushes are more effective than regular toothbrushes at removing plaque.
2- Brush your teeth between them

Your teeth are not the only place where plaque accumulates. They can also be found between the teeth. As a result, flossing or other tools will be appropriate. Plaque cannot be removed by brushing alone, therefore flossing is essential. There are other alternatives to flossing if you have trouble flossing around your fingers:

  • Toothpick
  • Holder for floss
  • Brushes placed between the teeth on small toothbrushes
  • Floss with mouthwash (a device)

When it comes to cleaning between your teeth, there is no right or wrong time. Make sure you floss before or after brushing!

3 – Rinse your mouth with mouthwash

Using an antibacterial mouthwash can be an excellent way to prevent plaque because mouthwash helps remove plaque more effectively. There are some mouthwashes that contain alcohol and cause dry mouth. In addition, a dry mouth does not prevent plaque from closing the teeth. Saliva keeps your mouth healthy. Dry mouths form more sticky plaques that are harder to remove. Choose an alcohol-free mouthwash.

4- Reduce your intake of sweet and sour foods

When you stop eating, bacteria feed on the sugar left in your mouth. Your mouth will accumulate more bacteria the sweeter your food is.

Sugary and acidic foods, however, cause tooth decay. To prevent further problems, eat fewer of these foods.


5 -Tooth overbite

Overbite occurs when the upper teeth are shorter than the mandibular teeth. An overbite occurs when your teeth don’t fit properly. As a child, it can be caused by thumb sucking, tongue pressing on teeth, or prolonged use of a pacifier. As the arch and roof of the mouth narrow, the mandible retreats, and the upper teeth cannot overlap the mandibular teeth. Patients who have lost their mill teeth are more likely to develop overbite. In spite of the fact that overbite is usually treated between the ages of 10 and 12, it can be treated at any age.

Overbite detection at home:

Keep your mouth closed normally. Ensure your jaw is comfortable without tooth pressure by putting your teeth together naturally. If your teeth are not overlapping or are in a normal position, this movement can indicate that they are in a normal position.

  • Take a look in the mirror and smile. In order to detect an overbite, you need a mirror to see your teeth. In front of the mirror, smile and show your teeth.
  • Your lips should be away from your teeth as you smile in the mirror.
  • Make sure the upper teeth are in front of the lower teeth.
  • Overbite occurs when the upper teeth are more than 3.5 mm apart from the lower teeth.
  • Overbite mode may also feel like the lower row teeth are close to the roof of the mouth.
6-Tooth underbite

The lower teeth protrude significantly from the upper teeth in this case. Underbites can cause the mandibular teeth to protrude when they are severe. Other cases are milder and almost undetectable. Underbite teeth are more than just a cosmetic issue. In most cases, an underbite is not a problem, but it can cause oral health problems in severe cases. Biting and chewing food, difficulty speaking, and misaligned jaws and face paint are just a few of these symptoms.

The causes of underbite teeth

There are several factors that can influence how your teeth align. Teeth typically grow so that upper teeth are slightly ahead of lower teeth. Mill teeth, which have a flat, flat surface at the back of the mouth, should be aligned with other teeth. Having your teeth aligned properly prevents you from accidentally biting your jaw or tongue when eating.

Meanwhile, some factors can contribute to underbite problems. Among these factors are:

  1. Habits of childhood can lead to underbites and other dental malformations.
  • Thumb sucking
  • Pressing the tongue on the teeth
  • Use of pacifiers in children over three years old
  • Long-term feeding from a glass of milk after childhood
  1. Genes have a greater impact on our lives than we realize! The underbite or front of the mandible is usually inherited. It is genetics that determines the shape and size of our jaws and teeth. As a result, if a family member has this problem, it may also affect others.
  2. Jaws can be permanently damaged by severe injuries. Most broken jaws can be repaired, but after surgery, the jaws do not always fit together, resulting in an underbite problem.
  3. The jaw and underbite can protrude due to tumors of the jaw or mouth.
Treatment for underbite:

It is rare for people to be born with perfectly aligned teeth. Some people do not require medical treatment for their teeth. Underbite treatment, however, has many benefits. Teeth will be easier to clean after treatment, and gum disease and tooth decay will be less likely. Your teeth, jaws, and facial muscles will also feel less pressure.

5. Gnashing or bruxism

As a result of bruxism, a person’s teeth erode when they press their teeth together involuntarily or involuntarily. The most common cause of bruxism is internal stress. Some people with bruxism experience headaches, pain in the head and face area, and tearing and deformation of their teeth.

Symptoms of bruxism include:
  • Facial pain
  • Headache
  • Ear pain
  • Pain and stiffness in the jaw area and surrounding muscles
  • Sleep disorder
  • Tooth decay can lead to tooth loss.
  • Broken teeth or their filling materials
  • The teeth are usually damaged in acute cases of bruxism.

What is the best time to see a doctor about bruxism?

If this is the case, you should see a dentist:

  • There is wear, damage, or sensitivity to your teeth.
  • There is pain in your jaw, face, or ears.
  • You have been told that you gnash your teeth at night.

To prevent problems such as infection or dental abscess, you may need dental care. Neurologists can help you control gnashing of teeth caused by stress. Meanwhile, mouthguards reduce tooth wear and tear. Preventing gritted teeth can also be achieved by performing muscle relaxation exercises before bed.

Tooth decay treatment:

Dental filling is one of the least common dental problems that most of us experience several times in our lifetime. To prevent caries from progressing, the dentist fills the decayed part of the tooth with amalgam or composite. There are advantages and disadvantages to each of these materials:

Amalgam’s advantages and disadvantages:

Compared to composite fillings, amalgam fillers are more cost-effective, stronger, and longer-lasting than metal alloys such as silver, mercury, zinc, and copper. If it is adequately covered, it can withstand a lot of adverse conditions for up to 15 years. In addition to being more resistant to impact or damage, amalgam is preferred for deeper decay due to its metal alloy.

The mercury element in amalgam has, however, contributed to its notoriety in recent years. There are some patients who are allergic to mercury, which is a heavy metal. Its appearance is another negative aspect. When laughing or smiling, silver fillers are very popular. A filling can darken over time, affecting the appearance and function of the smile.

Composites have the following advantages and disadvantages:

A composite filling is a combination of acrylic and ceramic that gives your teeth a natural and beautiful appearance. Furthermore, composite placement preserves as much of the tooth structure as possible by shaving less enamel.

The disadvantages of dental composites include their high cost and shorter lifespan than amalgam. As a result, amalgam is more cost-effective than composite. Composites do not have amalgam durability, so their lifespan eventually reaches seven to ten years.

Are composites or amalgams better?


If the tooth to be repaired is visible when smiling, composite is a better option. An amalgam filling will be more durable for the back teeth of the mouth, which are more prone to decay.

Denervation or root canal treatment:

When a tooth is severely decayed and infected, neurosurgery or endodontic treatment is required. Denervation involves removing the nerve and pulp within the tooth and cleaning and sealing the canals. Otherwise, the tooth may become infected and develop an abscess. The tooth nerve is located inside the root canal, and it acts as a cold or heat sensor. As such, it is not essential to dental health, and its presence or absence does not affect the tooth’s daily functionality.

Denervation removes dental pulp for what reason?

The pulp chamber of a tooth becomes infected when the nerve tissue or pulp is damaged. Abscesses and tooth decay can be caused by bacteria and decaying debris. A root abscess is a pus-filled sac that forms at the end of the root. When the infection spreads along the entire end of the tooth roots, it is called an abscess. As a result, the pulp is removed to prevent the infection from spreading.

What is the process of dental denervation?

Neurosurgery can be performed by a dentist or endodontist. Endodontic treatment is classified based on its difficulty or complexity.

Endodontic treatment usually begins with an x-ray to determine the shape of the root canals and any signs of infection in the surrounding bone. Anesthetic injections are usually used in neurosurgery around damaged teeth. The patient is not required to be anesthetized, but dentists usually inject anesthesia for their comfort. Denervation of glossy discharge requires a dry oral environment. To accomplish this, suction rubber tubes are used.

Using a special drill, the dentist makes a hole in the tooth. By doing so, the pulp, bacteria, decayed nerve tissue, and corresponding debris are removed from the tooth. During the cleaning process, special needles called files are used. Different sizes of files are available for scraping and shredding root channels. The shaved parts are drained using water pressure or sodium hypochlorite.

There are two ways to restore a tooth after denervation: Some dentists postpone the final restoration for a week to remove any remaining infection. After denervation, some dentists perform final restorations immediately.

At the next visit, the dentist fills the tooth’s inside with a sticky paste and inserts a rubber compound called gata into the tooth’s root canal. The external cavity created at the beginning of the treatment is filled with a filler.

Some teeth may require additional cases at the final stage of restoration. To prevent the denervated tooth from breaking, tools such as pins and posts are usually inserted into the canal to protect it further.

Denervation is painful, isn’t it?

Denervation is usually painless due to the anesthetic effect. In the first few days after denervation, normal tissues may become sensitive to inflammation; especially if there was pain or infection before the procedure. Usually, painkillers such as ibuprofen or naproxen can relieve this discomfort and pain. However, you should refrain from chewing food with the treated tooth until it is completely denervated to prevent it from breaking.

 What is the success rate of denervation?

In 95% of cases, root canal treatment is successful; some denervated teeth remain healthy for the rest of their lives.

Denervation of the dental nerve can lead to the following complications:

Denervated teeth may still become infected despite your dentist’s efforts to clean the canals and veneers. Denervated teeth can become infected for several reasons:

  •  One of the canals has not been cleared, and the number of canals exceeds the dentist’s diagnosis.
  • Unknown cracks in the tooth’s root
  • Re-denervation can sometimes be successful. The doctor may have to choose another method to save the tooth in other cases. Endodontic surgery or root canal resection is one of the most common surgical procedures. A method of reducing the inflammatory or infectious response around a tooth’s end. The gingival tissue is opened, the infected tissue is removed, and sometimes the end of the root is removed, followed by a small filling to seal the root canal.

Occasionally, after denervation, a large part of the tooth wall is shaved due to excessive decay; in these cases, the dentist recommends dental veneers to restore the teeth.

Our teeth don’t have many chances to defend themselves against our inattention, and we will need to spend a lot of money to maintain them. Oral health care can reduce dental problems and prevent many diseases significantly when it is practical and straightforward.


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