Wednesday , January 19 2022

Cancer: Everything about cancer, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

With the increasing advancement of medical technology, cancer will be completely cured in the not too distant future. This article will learn about the types of cancers, new cancer treatment methods, and cancer causes.

Many people mistakenly think that cancer is a disease, while a natural structure change causes cancer. The human body comprises millions of cells that make up tissues such as muscles, bones, and skin. Cells proliferate in a regular and controlled manner, which leads to the growth and repair of body tissues. But abnormal growth of cells is called a tumor, which can be benign or malignant.

About 30 percent of all cancers are preventable, according to the World Health Organization. It is estimated that only 5 to 10 percent of all cancers are due to inherited gene defects. The rest of the cancers are related to environmental pollutants, infections, and lifestyle choices such as smoking, low diet, and physical activity. The most significant risk factor for preventable cancer worldwide is smoking and tobacco use. Cancer cells are abnormal cells that reproduce rapidly and retain their ability to replicate and grow. The result of this growth without cell control is the formation of tissue masses or tumors.

Tumors continue to grow, and some, known as malignant tumors, can spread from one place to another. Cancer cells are different from normal cells. Cancer cells do not experience biological aging, retain their ability to divide, and do not respond to termination signals. What we know as cancer is a group of more than 100 different disease models. The common denominator of all these diseases is the abnormal growth of cells in the body. This growth causes the destruction of surrounding tissues, and even in severe cases, these cells spread to other parts of the body and continue to grow in that area. In the following, we will deal with different types of cancerous tumors.

Benign tumors

These tumors grow slowly and do not invade other tissues, usually limited to a small body part. However, these tumors do not shorten people’s lives and can be controlled with timely treatment, which is the only way to treat benign tumors surgically. Of course, a limited category of benign tumors can be fatal; They can lead to death if they occur in certain areas and disrupt a vital organ. However, most benign tumors do not cause death.

Malignant tumors

In contrast, benign tumors are malignant because they begin to grow in a limited area but quickly invade other tissues and organs in the body. Areas that are naturally responsible for the body’s defenses, such as the immune system, may not prevent split ends. Malignant cancerous tumors may lose their connection to tumor tissue and travel through the bloodstream to more distant body areas. They grow and infect another organ in the body with cancer. This is called metastasis and occurs when cancer has progressed. One of the scariest things about cancer is the metastatic process. During this stage, millions of infected cells separate from the tumor and enter the bloodstream. In these cases, cancer treatment will be more difficult. Tumors can spread to distant organs in three different ways:

  1. Through tissue: Cancer attacks adjacent normal tissue.
  2. Through the lymphatic system: Cancer invades the lymphatic system and travels through the lymphatic vessels to other parts of the body.
  3. Cancer attacks the veins and capillaries and spreads to other parts of the body with the blood through the blood.

Fortunately, most of these cells are destroyed by the immune system, but the few can escape, survive and enter the tissue through the arteries. As a result, infected cells can be destroyed in other parts of the body. The main difference between the two tumors is that metastasis does not occur in benign tumors. A benign tumor usually does not come back after another treatment and is surgically removed. If breast cancer spreads to the bones, the bones’ cancer cells are breast cancer cells, and the disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.

The figure above shows metastasis. Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from one tissue to another. Depending on which organ the cancer cell belongs to, it is called cancer; For example, if the liver is infected, it is called liver cancer, and if it is a lung cell, lung cancer. Suppose it is a blood cell, leukemia, and so on. Malignant cancers are divided into two categories: sarcomas and carcinomas. There are different types of cancers, and these cancers can occur in any cell of the body. Types of cancers are usually named after the organs, tissues, or cells that make them. The most common type of cancer is skin cancer. Sarcoma is a type of cancer that develops in muscle, bone, and soft tissue, including fat, blood vessels, arteries, tendons, and ligaments. Leukemia is cancer that originates in the bone marrow cells that make up the white blood cells.

Lymphoma develops in white blood cells called lymphocytes. This type of cancer affects B cells and T cells. Cancer cells use much more glucose to grow than normal cells. Glucose is a simple sugar that is needed to produce energy through cellular respiration. Cancer cells use sugar at high speed to continue dividing. These cells do not get their energy from glycolysis alone. Glycolysis is the process of breaking down sugar to produce energy. Tumor cell mitochondria provide the energy needed for abnormal growth associated with cancer cells. Mitochondria provide an enhanced energy source that also makes tumor cells more resistant to chemotherapy.

 Cancer cells use more glucose to grow than other cells.

We are all made from the fertilization of sperm and an egg. A few days after fertilization and when the egg is fertilized, a ball consisting of several hundred cells is formed by cell division; Our bodies are made of these cell divisions. When we reach full maturity, our bodies have trillions of cells. Cell division in our body is done completely; even some cells are deliberately destroyed for our body to form correctly. For example, when our hands formed during the embryonic period, some cells committed suicide in a cell fall process to create space between the fingers. This cell division is essential for our development; however, the problem arises if the divisions get out of control. Cancer cells can avoid the immune system by hiding themselves among healthy cells.

Cancer cell

For example, some tumors secrete proteins that are also secreted by the lymph nodes. This protein allows the tumor to deform its outer layer into something resembling lymphatic tissue. These tumors appear to be healthy tissue, not cancerous tissue. As a result, the immune cells do not recognize the tumor as a harmful substance, and the tumor is allowed to grow and spread uncontrollably throughout the body. Other cancer cells avoid chemotherapy by hiding in chambers in the body. Some leukemia cells avoid treatment by taking refuge in chambers in the bones. Cancer is the loss of control of cells. If genes that control cell division, such as the p53 gene, mutate in a cell, that cell becomes cancerous and begins to divide uncontrollably.

Of course, our bodies have the tools to find these mutations. Some biological mechanisms in our body can kill most mutated cells before they cause us any problems. According to Charles Swanton of the Francis Creek Institute in England, millions of years have passed since this process. This mechanism works very well, but it is not perfect. The threat is from a small number of cells that the repair mechanism cannot repair. Over time, one of these unbridled cells can divide to form a gland of thousands of cells. Finally, when their number reaches billions, we are faced with a tumor. When the accumulation of cells turns into a tumor, the person is entirely cancerous.

The tumor must be removed, and all cancer cells removed. Even if a few cells remain, they may divide again very quickly to form new tumors. Cancer cells change to avoid immune defenses, as well as to protect themselves from radiation and chemotherapy. The ability to deform is attributed to the inactivation of molecular switches called microRNAs. These small regulatory RNA molecules regulate how the gene is expressed. When specific microRNAs are inactivated, cancer cells acquire the ability to deform. One of the most obvious signs of cancer is a rapid increase in new blood vessels known as angiogenesis. Tumors need nutrients provided by blood vessels to grow.

Studies have shown that when new blood vessels are prevented from forming, the growth of tumors stops. Not all cancer cells are the same. When a cancer cell divides, it may develop new genetic mutations that change its behavior. In other words, the cancer cell is evolving. When cells inside a tumor mutate, they become genetically very diverse.

Cancer cells, like humans, lions, frogs, and bacteria, undergo genetic diversity over time. You can’t find two similar cells in a tumor. In a tumor, cells that are cancerous remain. We are struggling with evolution branches that build diversity, and diversity makes the tumor resistant to treatment.

One reason that can make cancer so difficult to treat is that tumors are constantly changing genetically. That’s why scientists want to enter the door of evolution to treat cancer. Look at the evolution of a cancerous tumor in the form of a tree with many branches. At the base of the tree are the primary genetic mutations that activate the tumor; Mutations that are shared between all tumor cells, and all of them have that genetic mutation. Theoretically, a treatment that can target those early mutations should kill all tumor cells. This is a method that is now used in some therapies. The problem is that these treatments do not work as well as we hoped, and the tumor usually resists them.

Types of cancer

Swelling of the neck and face: Lung cancer can cause swelling of the face, neck, arms, and upper chest when a tumor puts pressure on a vein that runs from the head to the heart.

Muscle weakness: If you have difficulty doing things like picking up a large book or getting out of bed daily, it could be a cancer sign.

Decreased appetite: Loss of appetite is another symptom that can easily be associated with harmless problems; However, if this condition persists for a long time or is accompanied by other symptoms such as bloating, it needs immediate examination.

Skin changes: See your doctor as soon as possible when you notice a change in the size, shape, color of a mole, or other spots on your skin. New spots or those that look different are the most important symptoms of skin cancer.

Abnormal bleeding: If you have abnormal bleeding anywhere on the body, including the mouth, end of the intestine, vagina, or urethra, see a doctor right away. If you notice bleeding after a cesarean section or between periods, you may have uterine cancer.

A sudden weight loss can be a sign of stomach cancer, but it is challenging to diagnose this type of cancer in its early stages. Sometimes cancer cells break away from the original tissue they have formed and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body and multiply in a new location, forming a new cancer center.

Fatigue: Weakness and fatigue that do not go away with rest or sleep should be checked by a doctor and maybe a sign of cancer, but the doctor should look for other symptoms.

Severe cough: Prolonged coughing can be a severe risk to your health. Coughing can usually mean something wrong with your respiratory system, but if your voice becomes abnormal or hoarse or you see blood coughing, the story is different.

Presence of a lump: Touch your body and if you feel a lump somewhere, no matter how small, see a doctor check it. A doctor should check any changing mass. Tumors in the breast and, of course, the testicles are the most common symptoms of breast and prostate cancer, respectively.

Bloating: Unexplained and prolonged bloating can be one of the symptoms of ovarian cancer. Flatulence may be accompanied by pelvic pain, bloating, and a feeling of fullness in the abdomen. Stomach pain or bloating after eating may also be a sign of stomach cancer.

Causes of cancer

Parasites: Noise is a microwave electromagnetic wave that is the same as satellite waves. The difference between electromagnetic waves is their wavelength, frequency, and energy strength. Microwaves have shorter wavelengths than radio waves but have a higher frequency and energy. There is a lot of research and opinion about the adverse effects of microwaves, cell phones, and even microwave ovens on health, but what about noise waves?

Arsenic-containing materials: It is generally believed that only sunlight is harmful to the skin and carcinogenic, while arsenic-containing substances also have this ability. Substances containing arsenic compounds can cause skin cancers if they come in contact with the skin. It may be interesting to know that arsenic was used to treat cancer in World War II. It is found in water, soil, and rock bedding and used to make insecticides, glass, and alloys. Arsenic is also present in drinking water, which has a standard level of 50 per billion. Arsenic is a metallic gray-colored silver that is found in minerals and water. Oncologists believe that in areas where soil erosion is high, the arsenic amount is higher than usual. Thus people in these areas are more prone to skin, lung, urinary, and kidney cancers. It has also been reported that some imported rice and domestic rice are contaminated with arsenic.

Air pollutants: Sarcoma is a type of cancer that develops in muscle, bone, and soft connective tissue

Other environmental factors include radiation in the environment and ionized compounds, which, although inadvertently dispersed in the air, are highly destructive. Recent reports suggest that industrial dust may cause not only cardiovascular disease but also respiratory cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a 2009 report that marked a turning point in estimating air pollutant concentrations. In this report, more than 181 different pollutants in the air were studied, of which 80 pollutants contribute to the formation of cancer in humans. For example, breathing benzene released from car exhaust can lead to cancer. About 30% of cancers caused by polluted air are due to car smoke, and the other 25% of cancers are due to industrial and factory pollution.

Supplements and multivitamins: Only people with vitamin and mineral deficiencies and pregnant women can take supplements. In 2010, the U.S. Health Research Agency reviewed 63 extensive studies and found that taking multivitamins did not prevent cancer and heart disease in most people worldwide. Instead, taking supplements such as vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C can damage your health and increase your risk of developing the disease.

Many people believe that antioxidants such as vitamin E can fight free and harmful free radicals in the body caused by smoking, sunlight, and fatty foods. The truth is that the complete elimination of these free radicals is not the right thing to do. In some cases, the body produces these free radicals to fight harmful cells, including cancer cells. If you stop this mechanism by taking vitamins regularly, the body loses its natural ability to control itself. Instead of spending your money on expensive supplements, it is better to eat better and healthier foods.

Canned foods

Almost all canned foods can be considered unhealthy foods because canned food uses a bisphenol-A or BPA chemical. Research conducted by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 2013 found that BPA has a destructive effect on genes that work in sewage mice’s brains. Even the Food and Drug Administration has been so impressed by BPA that it has called for replacing cans or reduced cans. Tomatoes themselves make the job even more dangerous due to their high acidity. This acidic property makes it easier for the BPA in the inner wall to absorb and penetrate the tomatoes. There is no undefined label under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration that indicates these cans contain BPA.

Inorganic fruits and vegetables

During the metastatic stage, cancer cells spread to other parts of the body.

Inorganic fruits and vegetables are contaminated with atrazine, third carb, and organophosphate to protect them from pests. Also, these fruits and vegetables are heavily impregnated with nitrogen fertilizer. Atrazine is a substance banned in Europe because it is harmful to human reproductive abilities. In 2009, research showed that if a pregnant woman drank a glass of water contaminated with atrazine, she would lose weight at birth.

Refined sugar

Refined sugar can be another carcinogen. Any substance that has been refined is usually losing its natural effects and causing further problems in the body. In addition to this problem, you should not use sugar as a regular additive; sugar enters your body as sugar and is a significant risk for those who have insulin problems; and on the other hand, this substance is one of the nutritional sources of cancer cells. Soda is also commonly used as a lactose product in beverages, which is carcinogenic. The acid in soft drinks is also carcinogenic. To control cancer risk in your body, you should control your sugar intake and use substances that contain natural sugars; The better you stay away from sugars.

Processed meat

Processed meats are those meat products that increase their consumption time or change their taste in various ways, such as smoking or salting, or adding preservatives. The World Health Organization says that eating processed meats such as bacon, sausages, sausages, and hams can cause cancer. According to a report released by the organization, consuming 50 grams of processed meat per day can increase colon cancer risk by 18%. The high amount of salt and chemicals added to produce processed meat is harmful to human health. The results of their research show that, on average, 1 in 17 people who took part in the study died, and those who ate 160 grams of the sausage a day were 44 percent more likely to die within the next 12 years. Who ate 20 grams or less of processed meat a day. This study was conducted with people from 10 European countries over 13 years.

Salty or smoked foods

Foods that have been salted using nitrates or reactions. Not that nitrate is carcinogenic in itself, but under certain conditions, when these chemicals enter the body, they become N-nitroso composites. These N-nitroso composites are carcinogenic. Smoking foods, such as smoked fish or smoked meat, cause these foods to absorb large amounts of tar, the same toxin found in cigarettes. Tar is known as a carcinogen. Evidence shows that eating these foods increases the risk of colon cancer as well as stomach cancer. In countries like Japan, where people traditionally eat many salty foods, stomach cancer incidence is very high.

Long-term sitting

It may seem strange, but a large percentage of people with cancer have been sitting for long periods. Prolonged sitting increases triglycerides, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar and increases appetite hormones’ secretion. Research conducted by the Cancer Society of the United States in 2010 showed that sitting for more than 6 hours a day is just as much as smoking and even more can harm human health. Of course, women are more likely than men to suffer from prolonged sitting, which may be due to female hormones such as estrogen. For example, women accustomed to sitting for long periods are 37% more likely to develop cancer within the next 13 years than women who sit for less than 3 hours a day. This figure is about 18% for men, which indicates that the risk is lower for them.

Industrial juices

It used to be thought that drinking a glass of juice was the best way to start the day. But scientists believe that consuming some juices is unhealthy and increases the risk of cancer. Industrial juices have so much sugar that they make it difficult for the body to absorb or even excrete this amount. In fact, during the production and packaging of juices, many of their anticancer compounds are lost. Australian scientists have decided to study consuming fruits, vegetables, and various juices in cancer prevention. After researching 2,200 people, they found that eating fruits such as apples and pears and vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower reduced cancer risk, but drinking industrial juices instead increased the risk.

The study also found that people who drank more than three glasses of juice a day were more likely to develop one type of bowel cancer. An essential part of anticancer substances such as fiber, vitamin C, and chemicals called antioxidants are eliminated during industrial juices. Instead, they consume a lot of sugar in these juices, which may help cancerous tumors to grow. Of course, entirely natural juices also have a lot of sugar, but their use is preferable to industrial and other beverages due to their anticancer properties.

Some viruses

Cancer cells may be caused by several factors, including exposure to chemicals, radiation, ultraviolet light, and chromosome replication errors. Also, viruses can cause cancer by altering genes. These viruses modify cells by integrating their genetic material with host cell DNA. Viral genes regulate cell growth and give the cell the ability to grow abnormally. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes genital warts, causes cervical cancer, and the Epstein-Barr virus causes mononucleosis, which causes Burkitt’s lymphoma.

CELL molecular

In 2003, the Human Genome Project examined all human genes and found for the first time that there were only 23,500 active genes in the nucleus of each somatic cell. These active genes make up about 400,000 proteins in the body present in proteins, enzymes, hormones, cytokines, and receptor molecules. These molecular variations cause changes in the appearance and inside of the human body. Cancer is a genetic disease that includes 277 types of diseases. More than 100,000 types of chemicals in our environment, of which only 35,000 have been studied, and about 300 of them produce cancer. Sixty-five thousand chemicals left in nature have not yet been tested.

The environment causes 93% of cancers, 30% by cigarette smoke, 35% by diet, 25% by infectious diseases, and 10% by ionic and non-ionic radiation. Cancers are caused by a series of mutations in human genes, and each mutation causes some new changes in the cell. Chemicals cause cancer cells called carcinogens. Cigarette smoke contains about 40 carcinogenic chemicals that often cause lung cancer. More than 100,000 types of chemicals in nature directly or indirectly affect the osteoplastic and nucleus of cells, leading to genetic disorders that eventually lead to mutations.

Viruses, bacteria, and various radiation can also cause hereditary cancers, which account for about 7% of all cancers. Cancerous tissues are divided into six groups: blood, lymph nodes, sarcoma, carcinoma, embryonic cells, sex cells. Cancer is a disease that disrupts intercellular relationships and order and disobeys essential and critical genes. These molecular irregularities affect the cell division cycle and lead to cell differentiation. Essential genes that become defective and alter their function fall into four groups:

1 – Oncogene

Oncogenes were the first cancer genes to be discovered. Oncogenes, or tumor genes, are altered genes that naturally express proteins involved in controlling cell growth and proliferation. These genes are typically called proto-oncogenes, but if mutations occur in the proto-oncogenes, they become oncogenes.

Mutations that convert proto-oncogenes to oncogenes cause overexpression of control factors, increase the number of genes encoding them, or alter control factors as the factor’s half-life activity in the cell increases. Oncogenes were first discovered in viruses called viral oncogenes. By mutations in proto-oncogenes’ promoters, they are converted to active oncogenes, their expression is increased, cell proliferation is increased, and a tumor is formed.


Oncoproteins are the product of proto-oncogenes that are produced in the presence of tumor suppressor genes. In normal diploid cells, there are two copies of each repressor gene. Both genes are often inactive. Oncoproteins have many designs; Some act as ligands and have receptors on the cell surface that act as growth factors. Some of them also act as membrane receptors.


Proto-oncogenes are genes that encode cell growth factors, transcription factors, and cell cycle controlling factors. Some viruses have genes similar to cellular oncogenes, and if these viruses enter normal cells. They cause cells to become cancerous. Viral oncogenes are represented as v-onc. For example, the Rous Sarcoma virus has v-SCR, and the Rat sarcoma virus has v-ras. The product of proto-oncogenes is called oncoprotein. Genetic changes that cause the production of oncogenes and genetic disorders include:

  • Chromosomal Translocation: Like the Bcr gene and the Abl oncogene in chronic leukemia
  • Point mutation: Like the Ras gene in colon cancer
  • Deletion: Like the Erb-B gene in women with breast cancer
  • Amplification: such as the N-myc gene in pediatric neuronal cancer
  • Insertional activation: Like the C-myc gene in acute leukemia

Chronic leukemia often occurs in old age and involves the genetic mutation of chromosomes 9 and 22. This condition results in a ph1 found in 95% of these patients, which helps diagnose the disease correctly. Binding of the Bcr gene to the Abl oncogene results in forming a new gene combination in which the resulting protein has the property of protein kinase. In 1990, this enzyme’s spatial and three-dimensional shape was identified, and the US FDA approved Gleevec. It is called Gleevec or Imatinib, which is made from the chemical 2-phenylamino pyrimidine. This drug’s mechanism of action attaches to the active sites of the enzyme. It prevents this enzyme activity, which ultimately leads to the inability of cancer cells to grow. It is the first anticancer drug to target cancer cell enzymes specifically. It has also been shown to affect gastrointestinal and reproductive tumors, targeting enzymes produced by the Erb-B, Kit, and EGFR genes.

2 –  Planned death (apoptosis)

The last way to escape cell cancer is to choose death or planned suicide (Apoptosis). Degradation of the cell membrane and cell cytoplasm leads to fragmentation of the cell, which is rapidly ingested by phagocytes and abducted from the environment. In one human, an average of 60 million cells dies each day with programmed death. Extreme action in this death causes tissue degradation, and lack of action leads to cancer cells’ production. Many factors contribute to producing this cell suicide, including toxins, hormones, cytokines, radiation, heat, viral infections, hypoxia, food deprivation, intracellular calcium overload, and nitric oxide. Oxides noted. Several genes play an essential role in apoptosis production, such as Bcl-2, P53, Bcl-XL, Bax, Bak, Bad, Bim, and Mcl-1. The Bcl-2 gene is located on chromosome 18q21, a molecular protein weight of 25 kDa and 239 amino acids.

This protein regulates the activity of caspase enzymes. This Bcl-2 protein releases cytochrome C from mitochondria, leading to caspase-9, caspase-3, and ultimately cell suicide. Bcl-2 protein can play a role in both causing and preventing apoptosis. The proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, and Bcl-XL work together to have anti-apoptotic action. Simultaneously, other proteins Bax, Bak, Bad, Bim play a significant role in causing apoptosis. To prevent apoptosis, Fas and Bcl-2 should be avoided, and IAPS concentrations increased. Protein Akt-kinase also promotes cell survival. Phosphorylation of the Akt gene inhibits Bax’s action, and the Akt protein activates the IKKA molecule, which in turn activates the NF-KB molecule. It ultimately leads to the expression of anti-apoptotic genes.

3 – Repair genes

Repair genes naturally make proteins and enzymes that can repair damaged genes. When they mutate themselves, they will not be able to repair the defects of other genes. Environmental and metabolic factors naturally attack all cell genes, and as a result of subsequent damage to these genes, there is an urgent need for repair proteins. So far, more than 30 types of repair proteins have been identified, all of which play an essential role in correcting the genetic defects of cells. More than a million genetic damage is done to every cell’s genes every day, and if these defects are not repaired, the cell will either age, commit suicide or turn into cancer. The best example of a repair gene is the BRCA-1 gene, which is located on chromosome 17q21.

This gene makes a protein with several properties, one of which can correct defective genes. This protein contains the Zinc finger molecule, which controls the expression of dependent genes. BRCA-1 and RDA-1 proteins can repair double-stranded DNA fractures. The BRCA-1 gene is genetically involved in cancer cells’ production and growth in women’s breasts during mutations. The BRCA-2 gene on chromosome 13q14 also produces a protein that acts like the BRCA-1 protein. So far, more than a thousand genetic mutations have been identified in the BRCA-2 and BRCA-1 genes. The BRCA-1 gene was discovered by Dr.king in 1990 and cloned in 1994.

4 – Tumor suppressor genes

Lack of tumor inhibitor or tumor suppressor genes leads to uncontrolled division of cancer cells. The p53 inhibitor gene is located on chromosome 17P13.1. The length of this gene is 20,000 bps, which makes the protein 393 amino acids long. The P53 gene, known in 1993 as the Molecule of the Year and the Guardian Gene, divides naturally and monitors cell growth. On this principle, mutations in the P53 gene are found in more than 60% cancerous tissues. More than 35 types of inhibitory genes have been identified and reported to date. The naturally occurring P53 protein functions regulate cell division, cell suicide, cell aging, vascularity, cell differentiation, and DNA metabolism. More than 26,000 genetic mutations have been reported in the p53 gene. Most of these mutations occur in the DNA-binding region, and as a result, p53-controlled genes cannot replicate. The cooperation of p53 protein with two proteins, CDK1-P2 and CDC2, keeps cancer cells in G1 and G2 cell divisions.

The p53 protein is both an inhibitor and a promoter of cancer cells. The p53 protein binds to DNA after damage to other genes and activates the WAF1 gene. This gene produces the P21 protein and binds to the CDK2 protein, preventing P21 from entering the next cell division stage. The p53 protein combines molecular events that play an essential role in cancer cells’ production. The N-terminus phosphorylate the active p53 protein in two ways. Through protein MAPK and ATM, ATR, and LHK protein. When p53 is phosphorylated, it loses its adhesion to MDM2. The pint protein modifies the structure of p53 and helps to prevent p53 from binding to MDM2. When the p53 gene is free of environmental shocks, the value of p53 decreases. The MDM2 protein binds to p53 and blocks its action, transporting it to the cell cytoplasm. The anticancer action of p53 can be done in three ways:

  • The p53 protein stimulates DNA-repairing proteins to address damage to genes.
  • The p53 protein stimulates programmed death (when damaged cells are unable to regenerate).
  • The p53 protein keeps cell division at the G1 / S stage for an opportunity for repair.

Cancer diagnosis

If you have touched a gland in your breast, the first step in diagnosis is to be examined by a surgeon. They will tell you if such a mass exists, and if it does, it is more likely to be benign or cancerous. After the examination, your doctor may ask you for further diagnostic steps. Never perform diagnostic procedures arbitrarily without a doctor’s advice. In some cases, the test may need to be performed differently.

There are several imaging techniques by which a doctor can examine the breast and judge a possible lump. The most important of these methods that are widely used are mammography and ultrasound, followed by MRI. Blood tests can also sometimes detect cancer. Other tests, such as bone scans and many more, may be done for other purposes but can ultimately help if there is a problem.

Cancer treatment methods


 Surgery is a quick way to remove cancerous tumors from a patient’s body. This method is used for tumors that have not spread or have not metastasized in medical terms. Surgery is not a guaranteed way to remove cancer cells, and if necessary, doctors will remove sections of healthy lymph to make sure the cancer is not spreading. Sometimes laser beams are used instead of surgery, which means that intense laser beams are used to burn cancerous tumors, which are more common in uterine and skin cancers.


Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Doctors use different types of radiation therapy and, in some cases, a combination of these methods.

  • External radiation therapy: In this method, radiation radiates from a large device located outside the body. Most people who use this treatment method must go to a hospital or clinic for treatment for a few weeks, five days a week.
  • Internal radiation therapy: In this method, the source of radiation is a radioactive material placed inside tiny chambers, needles, or thin plastic tubes and implanted in or around the tissue. The patient is usually hospitalized during treatment. The radioactive compartment often stays in the patient for several days.
  • Whole-body radiation therapy: In this method, the radiation source is a liquid or capsule containing radioactive material that reaches all body parts. The patient swallows or injects this liquid or capsule. This type of radiation therapy is used to treat cancer and control the severe pain caused by advanced cancer. Today, some cancers are treated this way.


As part of the body’s natural processes, cells are continually being replaced by division. Chemotherapy drugs interfere with the ability of cancer cells to divide. In this regard, only one drug or a combination of several drugs may be used. These drugs may directly enter the bloodstream and attack cancer cells throughout the body, specifically targeting cancerous areas. Side effects of this treatment depend on the type of drug and its dosage. These drugs affect cancer cells and other rapidly dividing cells and may have the following side effects:

  • Blood cells: When a drug damages healthy blood cells, the risk of infection, bruising, or bleeding increases, and the patient is likely to feel very weak and tired.
  • Hair follicles: Chemotherapy may cause hair loss. However, diseased hair will grow back, but their color and sex are often different from previous hair.
  • Gastrointestinal cells: Chemotherapy may cause loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or pain in the mouth and lips. Some of these drugs affect fertility. Women may no longer be able to have children, and men may lose their fertility. Although chemotherapy’s side effects are sometimes painful and distressing, they are usually temporary and can be treated or controlled by doctors.


Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses specific parts of a person’s immune system to fight off diseases such as cancer. The procedure is to remove T cells from the patient. T cells are a type of white blood cell that is the body’s most important tool in fighting infectious diseases and cancer. After removing these cells, genetic engineers modify the T cells and add artificial antigens to equip them with radar to detect cancer cells. Cancer cells contain a specific type of protein that this radar can detect. Equipped white blood cells re-enter the body to fight cancer cells. Immunotherapy is done in several ways:

In immunotherapy, the artificial antigen is added to a patient’s T cells

  • Stimulate your immune system to function better or smarter to attack cancer cells
  • Giving your body compounds like immune-building proteins

Some types of immunotherapy are called biologic therapy or biotherapy. Immunotherapy includes treatments that work in different ways. Some help the immune system in a general way. Others specifically help the immune system to attack cancer cells. Immunotherapy is more effective for some cancers, but it seems more effective for other cancers than other treatments. The main types of immunotherapy currently used to treat cancer are:

  • Monoclonal antibodies: These are hand-made versions of immune proteins. Antibodies can be very helpful in treating cancer. They can be designed to attack specific parts of a cancer cell.
  • Safety checkpoint inhibitors: These drugs block the immune system, identifying and attacking cancer cells.
  • Cancer vaccines: Vaccines are injected into the body to trigger the immune system’s response to certain diseases. We often think that vaccines are given to healthy people to help prevent infections. But several vaccines can help treat and prevent cancer.
  • Non-specific immunotherapies: These therapies boost the immune system generally, but these therapies help the immune system attack cancer cells.

Gene Therapy

Although gene therapy was not initially mentioned to treat cancer, the process in question could revolutionize the field. Doctors and researchers are using genetic engineering to reprogram immune T lymphocyte cells to treat certain cancer types. This treatment has quickly found its place in the medical world, but it also carries many risks in addition to firm performance. Of course, new methods of gene editing can significantly reduce this risk. In 2016, a team of American researchers decided to use the CRISPR method to strengthen T lymphocytes and treat cancer. Later, it was revealed that Sean Parker, a billionaire, and entrepreneur in capital technology, needed the research. Genes on chromosomes are the basic physical and functional units of the body.

Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode how proteins are made. Although genes are gaining more attention, these proteins often perform vital functions and even make up most cellular structures. Genetic diseases occur when genes are altered so that the proteins encoded by them cannot perform their normal functions. Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for causing disease. Researchers may use one of several approaches to correcting defective genes. A natural gene may be implanted into a non-specific site within the genome to replace a defective gene; This method is a common approach. Another approach is to replace abnormal genes through homologous recombination. The abnormal gene can be repaired by selective reverse mutation, which causes the gene to return to normal function. The regulation of a particular gene (the extent to which a gene is turned on and off) can also be changed.

Hormone Therapy

This method, also called endocrine therapy, targets cancers that use hormones and works in two ways: blocking the production of hormones in the body or changing the way hormones work. Sometimes it is necessary to remove hormone-producing organs such as the ovaries and testicles.

Doctors use this method alongside other treatments to shrink tumors before surgery or treatment or kill cancer cells that spread to other parts of the body. This method reduces the chance of cancer coming back. The growth of some cancers depends on the secretion of a hormone in the body, such as breast cancer in women. Hormone therapy is used for such cancers, which prevents the hormone’s secretion that causes cancer to grow. For example, women with breast cancer are prescribed anti-estrogen drugs.

Cell therapy

Cell therapy, or cell therapy, is a transplant of a living cell from one person or another healthy person to regenerate body tissue. For example, T cells that can fight cancer cells through cell-mediated immunity can be injected into a patient to provide immunity during treatment. The discovery and introduction of stem cells and progenitor cells, especially hematopoietic stem cells, has made this method an effective treatment for many cancers and blood cell production disorders in the bone marrow. Stem cells are the mother of all cells and can become all the cells in the body.

In cell therapy, healthy cells are transplanted from one person or another healthy person for histology.

These cells can self-renew and differentiate into cell types such as blood, heart, nerve, and cartilage cells. Cell therapy is the transplantation of a living cell from one person or another healthy person to regenerate body tissue. Cells are powerful factories that can exert therapeutic effects in several ways. Cells can nest at the site of injury, secrete growth-promoting substances, and in some cases become other cells. This versatility makes cell therapy work powerfully and provides a high potential for the treatment of irreversible diseases. Two different categories of cell therapy are known today:

  • The first class of cell therapy established was mainstream medicine, in which human cells are transplanted from a donor to a patient. Extensive research is being done on this method. Such research may be controversial when performed on human embryos.
  • Another category is cell therapy in alternative medicine, in which continuous injection of animal cells is used to treat diseases. The American Cancer Society has stated that no medical evidence supports this method’s effectiveness, which can have fatal consequences.


Today, nanotechnology has come to the aid of the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, so that it has caused cancer cells to be detected at the nanometer level and destroyed with the help of nanotechnology. Early detection of cancer is critical in improving its treatment methods. At present, cancer diagnosis and diagnosis are usually based on changes in cells and tissues, which can be done with clinical medical tests or conventional imaging methods. Nanoparticles and nanodevices play a vital role in transforming knowledge into clinically useful advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer cells, which will revolutionize the process of diagnosis, treatment, and, ultimately, cancer prevention.

 One of the nanoparticles’ applications is to perform two operations of tumor diagnosis and drug delivery to the tumor simultaneously.

Using these nanoparticles as a drug to treat cancer cells does not adversely affect healthy cells and tissues in the body. Once these nanoparticles reach the tumors, the drugs inside them are activated by thin strips of laser light. These nanoparticles are also able to determine the effect of treatment on malignant cells. The great idea that only one injection can detect, treat, and report on treatment effectiveness can only be achieved with nanotechnology. One of the most promising nanoparticles’ applications could be using them to perform two tumor detection and drug delivery operations simultaneously.

Nanoparticles used to treat cancer include:

  • Quantum Dots Used to increase the sensitivity of laboratory methods of a cancer diagnosis. Tree molecules also facilitate drug delivery. These molecules have a high ability to identify and treat simultaneously and have a large surface area that allows the binding of therapeutic agents or other biologically active molecules.
  • Nanoshells: A structure with a central nucleus coated with a thin membrane of a metal, such as gold, that can be thermally degraded or photographed using an external laser to deliver energy to the nanoshells in a tumor or for Wound healing is used. This method was performed by researchers at Rice University on animal models.
  • Magnetic nanoparticles: Iron oxide is a significant component of magnetic nanoparticles. The most important advantage of using these particles is that they are smaller than 100 nanometers. Fe304 iron oxide particles (magnetite) are of particular importance due to their compatibility with biological systems.

With the help of a magnetic field, these particles can be directed to a specific area, facilitating cancer diagnosis and treatment imaging. Because of these properties, magnetic nanoparticles have many medical applications. Other magnetic nanoparticle applications include transferring DNA into cells, MRI imaging, cancer treatment, heat therapy, magnetic separation of materials, and tissue engineering. With the accumulation of magnetic particles in the cancerous tissue, the tumor’s diagnosis using MRI is greatly facilitated. Also, these particles can be used as carriers of anticancer drugs.

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