Medical

Cancer: Everything about cancer, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

With the advancement of medical technology, cancer will be completely cured within a few years. You will learn about the types of cancer, new cancer treatment methods, and cancer causes in this article.

Many people mistakenly believe that cancer is a disease, while a natural structure change causes it. The human body consists of millions of cells that form tissues such as muscles, bones, and skin. Cells proliferate in a regular and controlled manner, which leads to tissue growth and repair. The abnormal growth of cells is called a tumor, which can either be benign or malignant.

According to the World Health Organization, 30 percent of all cancers can be prevented. Only 5 to 10 percent of all cancers are caused by inherited genetic defects. Rest of cancers are related to environmental pollutants, infections, and lifestyle choices such as smoking, a poor diet, and inactivity. Tobacco use is the most significant risk factor worldwide for preventable cancer. Cancer cells are abnormal cells that reproduce rapidly and retain the ability to replicate and grow. As a result of this growth without cell control, tissue masses or tumors form.

Some tumors, such as malignant tumors, can spread from one place to another. Cancerous cells differ from normal cells. Cancer cells do not age biologically, retain their ability to divide, and do not respond to termination signals. We know cancer as a group of more than 100 different disease models. All of these diseases are characterized by abnormal cell growth in the body. When this growth occurs, the surrounding tissues are destroyed, and even in severe cases, these cells spread to other parts of the body and continue to grow there. We will now examine different types of cancerous tumors.

Benign tumors

Usually limited to a small part of the body, these tumors grow slowly and do not invade other tissues. Benign tumors do not shorten people’s lives and can be controlled with timely treatment, which is the only way to treat them surgically. Certain benign tumors can be fatal if they occur in certain locations and disrupt vital organs. But most benign tumors do not cause death.

Malignant tumors

Benign tumors, on the other hand, are malignant because they begin to grow in a limited area but rapidly spread throughout the body. Even areas that are naturally responsible for the body’s defenses, like the immune system, may not be able to prevent split ends. Malignant cancerous tumors can lose their connection to tumor tissue and travel through the bloodstream to distant parts of the body. This causes another organ in the body to become infected with cancer. A metastasis occurs when cancer has progressed. Metastasis is one of the scariest things about cancer. In this stage, millions of infected cells separate from the tumor and enter the bloodstream. This makes cancer treatment more difficult. Cancer can spread to distant organs in three ways:

 

  1. Through tissue: Cancer attacks adjacent normal tissue.
  2. Through the lymphatic system: Cancer invades the lymphatic system and travels through the lymphatic vessels to other parts of the body.
  3. Cancer attacks the veins and capillaries and spreads to other parts of the body with the blood through the blood.

Most of these cells are destroyed by the immune system, but a few escape, survive and enter the tissue through the arteries. Therefore, infected cells can be destroyed in other parts of the body. In benign tumors, metastasis does not occur. The benign tumor usually does not come back after another treatment and is surgically removed. As breast cancer spreads to the bones, the bones’ cancer cells are breast cancer cells, and the disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.

The figure above illustrates metastasis. The spread of cancer cells from one tissue to another is called metastasis. The term cancer is different depending on which organ the cancer cell is infected; For example, if the liver cell is infected, it is called liver cancer, and if it is a lung cell, it is called lung cancer. Imagine it is a blood cell, leukemia, etc. Sarcomas and carcinomas are two types of malignant cancers. Cancer can develop in any cell of the body, and there are different types of cancer. Cancers are often named after the organs, tissues, or cells that cause them. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. Sarcoma is a cancer that develops in muscle, bone, and soft tissues such as fat, blood vessels, arteries, tendons, and ligaments. Cancer that originates in the bone marrow cells that make up white blood cells is leukemia.

In contrast, lymphoma develops in white blood cells called lymphocytes. It affects both B and T cells. Cancer cells consume much more glucose than normal cells. Through cellular respiration, glucose is used to produce energy. Sugar enables cancer cells to divide rapidly. They do not rely solely on glycolysis for energy. Sugar is broken down to produce energy through glycolysis. The mitochondria of cancer cells provide the energy required for abnormal growth. As well as providing an enhanced energy source, mitochondria also make tumor cells more resistant to chemotherapy.

 Cancer cells use more glucose to grow than other cells.

Our bodies are all made from the fertilization of sperm and eggs. After fertilization, several hundred cells are formed by cell division; our bodies are made up of these cell divisions. At full maturity, our bodies have trillions of cells. Our body divides its cells completely; even some are destroyed deliberately for our bodies to form properly. When the hands form during the embryonic period, some cells commit suicide in a process called cell fall to make space between the fingers. This cell division is essential for our development; however, the problem arises if the divisions get out of control. Cancer cells can hide from the immune system by hiding among healthy cells.

Cancer cell

As an example, some tumors secrete proteins that are also secreted by lymph nodes. Using this protein, the tumor deforms its outer layer into something resembling lymphatic tissue. These tumors are not cancerous. As a result, the immune cells do not recognize the tumor as a harmful substance, so it grows and spreads uncontrollably throughout the body. Other cancer cells avoid chemotherapy by hiding in body cavities. Some leukemia cells hide in bone chambers to avoid treatment. Cancer occurs when the cells are no longer in control. When genes that control cell division, such as p53, mutate in a cell, the cell becomes cancerous and begins to divide uncontrollably.

This can be detected by our bodies, of course. Most mutated cells are killed by biological mechanisms in our body before they cause any problems. Since this process began, millions of years have passed, according to Charles Swanton of the Francis Creek Institute in England. However, this mechanism is not perfect. Only a small number of cells cannot be repaired by the repair mechanism. One of these unbridled cells can divide over time into a gland made up of thousands of cells. We are faced with a tumor when their number reaches billions. When the accumulation of cells becomes a tumor, the person is entirely cancerous.

All cancerous cells and the tumor must be removed. Even if a few cells remain, they may divide very quickly again to form new tumors. Cancer cells change to evade immune defenses, as well as to protect themselves from radiation and chemotherapy. This ability to deform is due to the inactivation of molecular switches called microRNAs. MicroRNAs are small molecules that regulate the expression of genes. The inactivation of specific microRNAs results in cancer cells acquiring the ability to deform. Cancer is characterized by a rapid increase in new blood vessels, or angiogenesis. The growth of tumors depends on the supply of nutrients from blood vessels.

Tumor growth stops when new blood vessels are prevented from forming. Cancer cells are not all the same. As a cancer cell divides, it may develop new genetic mutations that change its behavior. A cancer cell is evolving. When cells in a tumor mutate, they become genetically diverse.

Like humans, lions, frogs, and bacteria, cancer cells undergo genetic diversity over time. Tumors contain no two identical cells. Only cancerous cells remain in a tumor. There are evolution branches that build diversity, and diversity makes a tumor resistant to treatment.

Tumors are constantly changing genetically, which can make cancer so difficult to treat. To treat cancer, scientists are trying to open the door to evolution. Consider the evolution of a cancerous tumor as a tree with many branches. The base of the tree represents the mutations that activate the tumor; mutations that are shared by all tumor cells. A treatment that targets those early mutations should theoretically kill all tumor cells. This approach is now being used in some treatments. The problem with these treatments is that they do not work as well as we hoped, and the tumor usually resists them.

Types of cancer

Swelling of the neck and face: Lung cancer can cause swelling of the face, neck, arms, and upper chest when a tumor puts pressure on a vein that runs from the head to the heart.

Muscle weakness: If you have difficulty doing things like picking up a large book or getting out of bed daily, it could be a cancer sign.

Decreased appetite: Loss of appetite is another symptom that can easily be associated with harmless problems; However, if this condition persists for a long time or is accompanied by other symptoms such as bloating, it needs immediate examination.

Skin changes: See your doctor as soon as possible when you notice a change in the size, shape, color of a mole, or other spots on your skin. New spots or those that look different are the most important symptoms of skin cancer.

Abnormal bleeding: If you have abnormal bleeding anywhere on the body, including the mouth, end of the intestine, vagina, or urethra, see a doctor right away. If you notice bleeding after a cesarean section or between periods, you may have uterine cancer.

A sudden weight loss can be a sign of stomach cancer, but it is challenging to diagnose this type of cancer in its early stages. Sometimes cancer cells break away from the original tissue they have formed and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body and multiply in a new location, forming a new cancer center.

Fatigue: Weakness and fatigue that do not go away with rest or sleep should be checked by a doctor and maybe a sign of cancer, but the doctor should look for other symptoms.

Severe cough: Prolonged coughing can be a severe risk to your health. Coughing can usually mean something wrong with your respiratory system, but if your voice becomes abnormal or hoarse or you see blood coughing, the story is different.

Presence of a lump: Touch your body and if you feel a lump somewhere, no matter how small, see a doctor check it. A doctor should check any changing mass. Tumors in the breast and, of course, the testicles are the most common symptoms of breast and prostate cancer, respectively.

Bloating: Unexplained and prolonged bloating can be one of the symptoms of ovarian cancer. Flatulence may be accompanied by pelvic pain, bloating, and a feeling of fullness in the abdomen. Stomach pain or bloating after eating may also be a sign of stomach cancer.

Causes of cancer

Microwave electromagnetic waves that cause noise are the same as satellite waves. Electromagnetic waves differ by their wavelength, frequency, and energy level. Microwaves have shorter wavelengths than radio waves, but are more energetic and have a higher frequency.

Most people think only sunlight is harmful to the skin and carcinogenic, but arsenic-containing substances can also cause cancer. Arsenic compounds can cause skin cancer if they come into contact with the skin. It is interesting to know that arsenic was used to treat cancer during World War II. It is found in water, soil, and rock bedding and is used to make insecticides, glass, and alloys. There is also arsenic in drinking water, which has a standard level of 50 parts per billion. Minerals and water contain arsenic, which is a gray-colored metallic silver. Oncologists believe the amount of arsenic is higher than usual in areas with high soil erosion. Thus, people in these areas are more likely to suffer from skin, lung, urinary, and kidney cancers. Also, some imported rice and domestic rice have been reported to be contaminated with arsenic.

Sarcoma is a type of cancer that affects muscles, bones, and soft tissues

Other environmental factors include radiation and ionized compounds, which, although inadvertently dispersed in the air, are very destructive. Reports suggest that industrial dust may cause not only cardiovascular disease but also respiratory cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a report in 2009 that marked a turning point in estimating air pollution levels. A total of 181 different pollutants in the air were studied in this report, 80 of which contributed to human cancer development. Breathing benzene from car exhaust, for example, can cause cancer. Around 30% of all cancers caused by polluted air are caused by car smoke, while 25% of cancers are caused by industrial and factory pollution.

Multivitamins and supplements: Only people with vitamin and mineral deficiencies and pregnant women can take supplements. In 2010, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reviewed 63 studies and concluded that multivitamins do not prevent cancer and heart disease in most people. Taking supplements such as vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C can damage your health and increase your risk of developing the disease instead.

Many people believe that antioxidants such as vitamin E can fight harmful free radicals caused by smoking, sunlight, and fatty foods in the body. Free radicals should not be completely eliminated. Occasionally, the body produces free radicals to fight harmful cells, including cancer cells. The body loses its natural ability to regulate itself if you stop this mechanism by taking vitamins regularly. Instead of buying expensive supplements, you should eat better and healthier foods.

Canned foods

The chemical bisphenol-A or BPA is used in almost all canned foods, so they can also be considered unhealthy. Research conducted by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 2013 revealed that BPA destroys genes in sewage mice’s brains. The Food and Drug Administration has been so impressed by BPA that it has called for the replacement or reduction of aluminum cans. The acidity of tomatoes makes the job even more dangerous. This acidic property makes it easier for the BPA in the inner wall to absorb and penetrate the tomatoes.

Inorganic fruits and vegetables

Cancer cells spread to other parts of the body during the metastatic stage.

Inorganic fruits and vegetables are sprayed with atrazine, third carb, and organophosphate to protect them from pests. In addition, these fruits and vegetables are heavily fertilized with nitrogen. Atrazine is a substance banned in Europe because it interferes with human reproduction. Researchers found in 2009 that if a pregnant woman drank a glass of water contaminated with atrazine, she would lose weight at birth.

Refined sugar

Another carcinogen is refined sugar. Refined substances usually lose their natural effects and cause further health problems in the body. Additionally, sugar should not be used as a regular additive since sugar enters the body as sugar and is a significant risk for those with insulin problems; on the other hand, sugar is one of the nutritional sources of cancer cells. In beverages, soda is commonly used as a lactose product, which is carcinogenic. Soft drinks contain acid, which is also carcinogenic. If you want to reduce cancer risk in your body, you should control your sugar intake and use substances that contain natural sugars. The less sugar you eat, the better.

Processed meat

Meat products that have been processed can be increased in time of consumption or changed in taste in various ways, such as smoking, salting, or adding preservatives. Processed meats such as bacon, sausages, sausages, and ham can cause cancer, according to the World Health Organization. In a report released by the organization, eating 50 grams of processed meat per day can increase colon cancer risk by 18%. Processed meat contains a high amount of salt and chemicals, which are harmful to health. Researchers found that, on average, 1 in 17 people in the study died, and those who ate 160 grams of sausage every day were 44 percent more likely to die in the next 12 years. But those who ate less processed meat were less likely to die. This study involved people from 10 European countries over a period of 13 years.

Salty or smoked foods

Foods that have been salted with nitrates or reactions. Nitrate itself is not carcinogenic, but under certain conditions, when these chemicals enter the body, they become N-nitroso compounds. Nitrate itself is not carcinogenic, but under certain conditions, when these chemicals enter the body, they become N-nitroso compounds. Normally, nitrate is not carcinogenic, but under certain conditions, when these chemicals enter the body, they become N-nitroso compounds, which are carcinogenic. When foods are smoked, such as fish or meat, they absorb tar, the same toxin found in cigarettes. Tar is a known carcinogen. Eating these foods increases the risk of colon cancer and stomach cancer. People in countries like Japan, where salty foods are traditionally eaten, have a high incidence of stomach cancer.

Long-term sitting

It may seem strange, but many people with cancer sit for long periods of time. Sitting for a long period of time increases triglycerides, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar, as well as appetite hormones. As demonstrated by a study conducted by the Cancer Society of the United States in 2010, sitting for more than 6 hours a day can harm your health just as much as smoking. As a matter of fact, women are more likely than men to suffer from prolonged sitting, which may be a result of female hormones such as estrogen. A woman who sits for long periods of time is 37% more likely to develop cancer within the next 13 years than a woman who sits for less than 3 hours each day. The figure is 18% for men, which indicates a lower risk.

Industrial juices

Drinking a glass of juice was once thought to be the best way to start the day. However, scientists believe that some juices are unhealthy and increase the risk of cancer. Sugar in industrial juices is so high that it is difficult for the body to absorb it or even excrete it. Many anticancer compounds are lost during the production and packaging of juices. Scientists from Australia decided to study the effects of eating fruits, vegetables, and various juices on cancer prevention. After researching 2,200 people, they found that eating fruits such as apples and pears and vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower reduced cancer risk, but drinking industrial juices instead increased the risk.

Additionally, people who drank more than three glasses of juice a day were more likely to develop one type of bowel cancer. Industrial juices eliminate anticancer substances such as fiber, vitamin C, and antioxidants. They consume a lot of sugar in these juices, which may cause cancerous tumors to grow. Of course, entirely natural juices also have a lot of sugar, but their use is preferable to industrial and other beverages due to their anticancer properties.

Some viruses

A number of factors can lead to cancer cells, including exposure to chemicals, radiation, ultraviolet light, and errors in chromosome replication. Viruses can also cause cancer by altering genes. They do this by integrating their genetic material into the DNA of host cells. Viral genes control cell growth and allow cells to grow abnormally. The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes genital warts, causes cervical cancer, and the Epstein-Barr virus causes mononucleosis, which causes Burkitt’s lymphoma.

CELL molecular

In 2003, the Human Genome Project examined all human genes and found for the first time that there were only 23,500 active genes in the nucleus of each somatic cell. These active genes make up about 400,000 proteins in the body present in proteins, enzymes, hormones, cytokines, and receptor molecules. These molecular variations cause changes in the appearance and inside of the human body. Cancer is a genetic disease that includes 277 types of diseases. More than 100,000 types of chemicals in our environment, of which only 35,000 have been studied, and about 300 of them produce cancer. Sixty-five thousand chemicals left in nature have not yet been tested.

The environment causes 93% of cancers, 30% by cigarette smoke, 35% by diet, 25% by infectious diseases, and 10% by ionic and non-ionic radiation. Cancers are caused by a series of mutations in human genes, and each mutation causes some new changes in the cell. Chemicals cause cancer cells called carcinogens. Cigarette smoke contains about 40 carcinogenic chemicals that often cause lung cancer. More than 100,000 types of chemicals in nature directly or indirectly affect the osteoplastic and nucleus of cells, leading to genetic disorders that eventually lead to mutations.

Viruses, bacteria, and various radiation can also cause hereditary cancers, which account for about 7% of all cancers. Cancerous tissues are divided into six groups: blood, lymph nodes, sarcoma, carcinoma, embryonic cells, sex cells. Cancer is a disease that disrupts intercellular relationships and order and disobeys essential and critical genes. These molecular irregularities affect the cell division cycle and lead to cell differentiation. Essential genes that become defective and alter their function fall into four groups:

1 – Oncogene

Oncogenes were the first cancer genes to be discovered. Oncogenes, or tumor genes, are altered genes that naturally express proteins involved in controlling cell growth and proliferation. These genes are typically called proto-oncogenes, but if mutations occur in the proto-oncogenes, they become oncogenes.

Mutations that convert proto-oncogenes to oncogenes cause overexpression of control factors, increase the number of genes encoding them, or alter control factors as the factor’s half-life activity in the cell increases. Oncogenes were first discovered in viruses called viral oncogenes. By mutations in proto-oncogenes’ promoters, they are converted to active oncogenes, their expression is increased, cell proliferation is increased, and a tumor is formed.

Oncoprotein

Oncoproteins are the product of proto-oncogenes that are produced in the presence of tumor suppressor genes. In normal diploid cells, there are two copies of each repressor gene. Both genes are often inactive. Oncoproteins have many designs; Some act as ligands and have receptors on the cell surface that act as growth factors. Some of them also act as membrane receptors.

Proto-oncogene

Proto-oncogenes are genes that encode cell growth factors, transcription factors, and cell cycle controlling factors. Some viruses have genes similar to cellular oncogenes, and if these viruses enter normal cells. They cause cells to become cancerous. Viral oncogenes are represented as v-onc. For example, the Rous Sarcoma virus has v-SCR, and the Rat sarcoma virus has v-ras. The product of proto-oncogenes is called oncoprotein. Genetic changes that cause the production of oncogenes and genetic disorders include:

  • Chromosomal Translocation: Like the Bcr gene and the Abl oncogene in chronic leukemia
  • Point mutation: Like the Ras gene in colon cancer
  • Deletion: Like the Erb-B gene in women with breast cancer
  • Amplification: such as the N-myc gene in pediatric neuronal cancer
  • Insertional activation: Like the C-myc gene in acute leukemia

Chronic leukemia often occurs in old age and involves the genetic mutation of chromosomes 9 and 22. This condition results in a ph1 found in 95% of these patients, which helps diagnose the disease correctly. Binding of the Bcr gene to the Abl oncogene results in forming a new gene combination in which the resulting protein has the property of protein kinase. In 1990, this enzyme’s spatial and three-dimensional shape was identified, and the US FDA approved Gleevec. It is called Gleevec or Imatinib, which is made from the chemical 2-phenylamino pyrimidine. This drug’s mechanism of action attaches to the active sites of the enzyme. It prevents this enzyme activity, which ultimately leads to the inability of cancer cells to grow. It is the first anticancer drug to target cancer cell enzymes specifically. It has also been shown to affect gastrointestinal and reproductive tumors, targeting enzymes produced by the Erb-B, Kit, and EGFR genes.

2 –  Planned death (apoptosis)

The last way to escape cell cancer is to choose death or planned suicide (Apoptosis). Degradation of the cell membrane and cell cytoplasm leads to fragmentation of the cell, which is rapidly ingested by phagocytes and abducted from the environment. In one human, an average of 60 million cells dies each day with programmed death. Extreme action in this death causes tissue degradation, and lack of action leads to cancer cells’ production. Many factors contribute to producing this cell suicide, including toxins, hormones, cytokines, radiation, heat, viral infections, hypoxia, food deprivation, intracellular calcium overload, and nitric oxide. Oxides noted. Several genes play an essential role in apoptosis production, such as Bcl-2, P53, Bcl-XL, Bax, Bak, Bad, Bim, and Mcl-1. The Bcl-2 gene is located on chromosome 18q21, a molecular protein weight of 25 kDa and 239 amino acids.

This protein regulates the activity of caspase enzymes. This Bcl-2 protein releases cytochrome C from mitochondria, leading to caspase-9, caspase-3, and ultimately cell suicide. Bcl-2 protein can play a role in both causing and preventing apoptosis. The proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, and Bcl-XL work together to have anti-apoptotic action. Simultaneously, other proteins Bax, Bak, Bad, Bim play a significant role in causing apoptosis. To prevent apoptosis, Fas and Bcl-2 should be avoided, and IAPS concentrations increased. Protein Akt-kinase also promotes cell survival. Phosphorylation of the Akt gene inhibits Bax’s action, and the Akt protein activates the IKKA molecule, which in turn activates the NF-KB molecule. It ultimately leads to the expression of anti-apoptotic genes.

3 – Repair genes

Repair genes naturally make proteins and enzymes that can repair damaged genes. When they mutate themselves, they will not be able to repair the defects of other genes. Environmental and metabolic factors naturally attack all cell genes, and as a result of subsequent damage to these genes, there is an urgent need for repair proteins. So far, more than 30 types of repair proteins have been identified, all of which play an essential role in correcting the genetic defects of cells. More than a million genetic damage is done to every cell’s genes every day, and if these defects are not repaired, the cell will either age, commit suicide or turn into cancer. The best example of a repair gene is the BRCA-1 gene, which is located on chromosome 17q21.

This gene makes a protein with several properties, one of which can correct defective genes. This protein contains the Zinc finger molecule, which controls the expression of dependent genes. BRCA-1 and RDA-1 proteins can repair double-stranded DNA fractures. The BRCA-1 gene is genetically involved in cancer cells’ production and growth in women’s breasts during mutations. The BRCA-2 gene on chromosome 13q14 also produces a protein that acts like the BRCA-1 protein. So far, more than a thousand genetic mutations have been identified in the BRCA-2 and BRCA-1 genes. The BRCA-1 gene was discovered by Dr.king in 1990 and cloned in 1994.

4 – Tumor suppressor genes

Lack of tumor inhibitor or tumor suppressor genes leads to uncontrolled division of cancer cells. The p53 inhibitor gene is located on chromosome 17P13.1. The length of this gene is 20,000 bps, which makes the protein 393 amino acids long. The P53 gene, known in 1993 as the Molecule of the Year and the Guardian Gene, divides naturally and monitors cell growth. On this principle, mutations in the P53 gene are found in more than 60% cancerous tissues. More than 35 types of inhibitory genes have been identified and reported to date. The naturally occurring P53 protein functions regulate cell division, cell suicide, cell aging, vascularity, cell differentiation, and DNA metabolism. More than 26,000 genetic mutations have been reported in the p53 gene. Most of these mutations occur in the DNA-binding region, and as a result, p53-controlled genes cannot replicate. The cooperation of p53 protein with two proteins, CDK1-P2 and CDC2, keeps cancer cells in G1 and G2 cell divisions.

The p53 protein is both an inhibitor and a promoter of cancer cells. The p53 protein binds to DNA after damage to other genes and activates the WAF1 gene. This gene produces the P21 protein and binds to the CDK2 protein, preventing P21 from entering the next cell division stage. The p53 protein combines molecular events that play an essential role in cancer cells’ production. The N-terminus phosphorylate the active p53 protein in two ways. Through protein MAPK and ATM, ATR, and LHK protein. When p53 is phosphorylated, it loses its adhesion to MDM2. The pint protein modifies the structure of p53 and helps to prevent p53 from binding to MDM2. When the p53 gene is free of environmental shocks, the value of p53 decreases. The MDM2 protein binds to p53 and blocks its action, transporting it to the cell cytoplasm. The anticancer action of p53 can be done in three ways:

  • The p53 protein stimulates DNA-repairing proteins to address damage to genes.
  • The p53 protein stimulates programmed death (when damaged cells are unable to regenerate).
  • The p53 protein keeps cell division at the G1 / S stage for an opportunity for repair.

Cancer diagnosis

If you have touched a gland in your breast, the first step in diagnosis is to be examined by a surgeon. They will tell you if such a mass exists, and if it does, it is more likely to be benign or cancerous. After the examination, your doctor may ask you for further diagnostic steps. Never perform diagnostic procedures arbitrarily without a doctor’s advice. In some cases, the test may need to be performed differently.

There are several imaging techniques by which a doctor can examine the breast and judge a possible lump. The most important of these methods that are widely used are mammography and ultrasound, followed by MRI. Blood tests can also sometimes detect cancer. Other tests, such as bone scans and many more, may be done for other purposes but can ultimately help if there is a problem.

Cancer treatment methods

Surgery

 Surgery is a quick way to remove cancerous tumors from a patient’s body. This method is used for tumors that have not spread or have not metastasized in medical terms. Surgery is not a guaranteed way to remove cancer cells, and if necessary, doctors will remove sections of healthy lymph to make sure the cancer is not spreading. Sometimes laser beams are used instead of surgery, which means that intense laser beams are used to burn cancerous tumors, which are more common in uterine and skin cancers.

 Radiotherapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Doctors use different types of radiation therapy and, in some cases, a combination of these methods.

  • External radiation therapy: In this method, radiation radiates from a large device located outside the body. Most people who use this treatment method must go to a hospital or clinic for treatment for a few weeks, five days a week.
  • Internal radiation therapy: In this method, the source of radiation is a radioactive material placed inside tiny chambers, needles, or thin plastic tubes and implanted in or around the tissue. The patient is usually hospitalized during treatment. The radioactive compartment often stays in the patient for several days.
  • Whole-body radiation therapy: In this method, the radiation source is a liquid or capsule containing radioactive material that reaches all body parts. The patient swallows or injects this liquid or capsule. This type of radiation therapy is used to treat cancer and control the severe pain caused by advanced cancer. Today, some cancers are treated this way.

Chemotherapy

As part of the body’s natural processes, cells are continually being replaced by division. Chemotherapy drugs interfere with the ability of cancer cells to divide. In this regard, only one drug or a combination of several drugs may be used. These drugs may directly enter the bloodstream and attack cancer cells throughout the body, specifically targeting cancerous areas. Side effects of this treatment depend on the type of drug and its dosage. These drugs affect cancer cells and other rapidly dividing cells and may have the following side effects:

  • Blood cells: When a drug damages healthy blood cells, the risk of infection, bruising, or bleeding increases, and the patient is likely to feel very weak and tired.
  • Hair follicles: Chemotherapy may cause hair loss. However, diseased hair will grow back, but their color and sex are often different from previous hair.
  • Gastrointestinal cells: Chemotherapy may cause loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or pain in the mouth and lips. Some of these drugs affect fertility. Women may no longer be able to have children, and men may lose their fertility. Although chemotherapy’s side effects are sometimes painful and distressing, they are usually temporary and can be treated or controlled by doctors.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses specific parts of a person’s immune system to fight off diseases such as cancer. The procedure is to remove T cells from the patient. T cells are a type of white blood cell that is the body’s most important tool in fighting infectious diseases and cancer. After removing these cells, genetic engineers modify the T cells and add artificial antigens to equip them with radar to detect cancer cells. Cancer cells contain a specific type of protein that this radar can detect. Equipped white blood cells re-enter the body to fight cancer cells. Immunotherapy is done in several ways:

In immunotherapy, the artificial antigen is added to a patient’s T cells

  • Stimulate your immune system to function better or smarter to attack cancer cells
  • Giving your body compounds like immune-building proteins

Some types of immunotherapy are called biologic therapy or biotherapy. Immunotherapy includes treatments that work in different ways. Some help the immune system in a general way. Others specifically help the immune system to attack cancer cells. Immunotherapy is more effective for some cancers, but it seems more effective for other cancers than other treatments. The main types of immunotherapy currently used to treat cancer are:

  • Monoclonal antibodies: These are hand-made versions of immune proteins. Antibodies can be very helpful in treating cancer. They can be designed to attack specific parts of a cancer cell.
  • Safety checkpoint inhibitors: These drugs block the immune system, identifying and attacking cancer cells.
  • Cancer vaccines: Vaccines are injected into the body to trigger the immune system’s response to certain diseases. We often think that vaccines are given to healthy people to help prevent infections. But several vaccines can help treat and prevent cancer.
  • Non-specific immunotherapies: These therapies boost the immune system generally, but these therapies help the immune system attack cancer cells.

Gene Therapy

Although gene therapy was not initially mentioned to treat cancer, the process in question could revolutionize the field. Doctors and researchers are using genetic engineering to reprogram immune T lymphocyte cells to treat certain cancer types. This treatment has quickly found its place in the medical world, but it also carries many risks in addition to firm performance. Of course, new methods of gene editing can significantly reduce this risk. In 2016, a team of American researchers decided to use the CRISPR method to strengthen T lymphocytes and treat cancer. Later, it was revealed that Sean Parker, a billionaire, and entrepreneur in capital technology, needed the research. Genes on chromosomes are the basic physical and functional units of the body.

Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode how proteins are made. Although genes are gaining more attention, these proteins often perform vital functions and even make up most cellular structures. Genetic diseases occur when genes are altered so that the proteins encoded by them cannot perform their normal functions. Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for causing disease. Researchers may use one of several approaches to correcting defective genes. A natural gene may be implanted into a non-specific site within the genome to replace a defective gene; This method is a common approach. Another approach is to replace abnormal genes through homologous recombination. The abnormal gene can be repaired by selective reverse mutation, which causes the gene to return to normal function. The regulation of a particular gene (the extent to which a gene is turned on and off) can also be changed.

Hormone Therapy

This method, also called endocrine therapy, targets cancers that use hormones and works in two ways: blocking the production of hormones in the body or changing the way hormones work. Sometimes it is necessary to remove hormone-producing organs such as the ovaries and testicles.

Doctors use this method alongside other treatments to shrink tumors before surgery or treatment or kill cancer cells that spread to other parts of the body. This method reduces the chance of cancer coming back. The growth of some cancers depends on the secretion of a hormone in the body, such as breast cancer in women. Hormone therapy is used for such cancers, which prevents the hormone’s secretion that causes cancer to grow. For example, women with breast cancer are prescribed anti-estrogen drugs.

Cell therapy

Cell therapy, or cell therapy, is a transplant of a living cell from one person or another healthy person to regenerate body tissue. For example, T cells that can fight cancer cells through cell-mediated immunity can be injected into a patient to provide immunity during treatment. The discovery and introduction of stem cells and progenitor cells, especially hematopoietic stem cells, has made this method an effective treatment for many cancers and blood cell production disorders in the bone marrow. Stem cells are the mother of all cells and can become all the cells in the body.

In cell therapy, healthy cells are transplanted from one person or another healthy person for histology.

These cells can self-renew and differentiate into cell types such as blood, heart, nerve, and cartilage cells. Cell therapy is the transplantation of a living cell from one person or another healthy person to regenerate body tissue. Cells are powerful factories that can exert therapeutic effects in several ways. Cells can nest at the site of injury, secrete growth-promoting substances, and in some cases become other cells. This versatility makes cell therapy work powerfully and provides a high potential for the treatment of irreversible diseases. Two different categories of cell therapy are known today:

  • The first class of cell therapy established was mainstream medicine, in which human cells are transplanted from a donor to a patient. Extensive research is being done on this method. Such research may be controversial when performed on human embryos.
  • Another category is cell therapy in alternative medicine, in which continuous injection of animal cells is used to treat diseases. The American Cancer Society has stated that no medical evidence supports this method’s effectiveness, which can have fatal consequences.

  Nanotherapy

Today, nanotechnology has come to the aid of the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, so that it has caused cancer cells to be detected at the nanometer level and destroyed with the help of nanotechnology. Early detection of cancer is critical in improving its treatment methods. At present, cancer diagnosis and diagnosis are usually based on changes in cells and tissues, which can be done with clinical medical tests or conventional imaging methods. Nanoparticles and nanodevices play a vital role in transforming knowledge into clinically useful advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer cells, which will revolutionize the process of diagnosis, treatment, and, ultimately, cancer prevention.

 One of the nanoparticles’ applications is to perform two operations of tumor diagnosis and drug delivery to the tumor simultaneously.

Using these nanoparticles as a drug to treat cancer cells does not adversely affect healthy cells and tissues in the body. Once these nanoparticles reach the tumors, the drugs inside them are activated by thin strips of laser light. These nanoparticles are also able to determine the effect of treatment on malignant cells. The great idea that only one injection can detect, treat, and report on treatment effectiveness can only be achieved with nanotechnology. One of the most promising nanoparticles’ applications could be using them to perform two tumor detection and drug delivery operations simultaneously.

Nanoparticles used to treat cancer include:

  • Quantum Dots Used to increase the sensitivity of laboratory methods of a cancer diagnosis. Tree molecules also facilitate drug delivery. These molecules have a high ability to identify and treat simultaneously and have a large surface area that allows the binding of therapeutic agents or other biologically active molecules.
  • Nanoshells: A structure with a central nucleus coated with a thin membrane of a metal, such as gold, that can be thermally degraded or photographed using an external laser to deliver energy to the nanoshells in a tumor or for Wound healing is used. This method was performed by researchers at Rice University on animal models.
  • Magnetic nanoparticles: Iron oxide is a significant component of magnetic nanoparticles. The most important advantage of using these particles is that they are smaller than 100 nanometers. Fe304 iron oxide particles (magnetite) are of particular importance due to their compatibility with biological systems.

With the help of a magnetic field, these particles can be directed to a specific area, facilitating cancer diagnosis and treatment imaging. Because of these properties, magnetic nanoparticles have many medical applications. Other magnetic nanoparticle applications include transferring DNA into cells, MRI imaging, cancer treatment, heat therapy, magnetic separation of materials, and tissue engineering. With the accumulation of magnetic particles in the cancerous tissue, the tumor’s diagnosis using MRI is greatly facilitated. Also, these particles can be used as carriers of anticancer drugs.

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