Blood tests are one of the most effective ways to ensure proper functioning and diagnosis of the body. If you have regular blood tests, you will notice changes in your body over time, and you can make the right and timely decisions for your health. In the following, we will introduce you to the types of blood tests, how they are performed, and the information they give you. Do not miss this article.
What is a blood test?
Blood tests are a common medical procedure that may be a regular part of your routine checkup. Although most blood tests do not require special preparation, some require that you do not eat anything for 8 to 12 hours before the test.
A small amount of blood is taken from you for a blood test. This blood is usually taken from your hand using a syringe or may be obtained by piercing your fingertip. Laboratory staff examine blood samples and, if necessary, separate blood cells from plasma fluid.
Your doctor can use blood test results to diagnose or confirm your symptoms.
Applications of blood tests for physicians:
- Ensure proper functioning of organs such as liver, kidneys, thyroid, and heart;
- Diagnosis of diseases such as cancer, AIDS, diabetes, anemia, and cardiovascular disease;
- Diagnosis of heart disease risk;
- Make sure the medications you take are effective.
- Assess your blood clot.
When is a blood test necessary?
Your doctor will usually recommend that you have a blood test at least once a year. Of course, there are many important reasons to have more blood tests:
Abnormal and permanent symptoms may be anything like fatigue, abnormal weight gain, or new pain.
For example, to improve your health, knowing the number of various elements in your blood, including saturated and unsaturated cholesterol, tips for changing your diet or exercise program. You can put aside unhealthy habits and pay more attention to your body’s nutrients by knowing your health.
Reduce the risk of disease or complications because regular blood tests detect almost any sign of any disease in the early stages. Many lungs, heart, and kidney diseases are diagnosed with a blood test.
Consult your doctor if you want to repeat some tests more than once a year.
It is recommended that you do these tests regularly to improve your health:
- Complete blood count or CBC;
- Basic metabolic test;
- Thyroid test;
- Nutrient tests for iron and vitamin B.
Types of blood tests
During your routine examination or diagnosis, you may be prescribed the following tests:
CBC test or complete blood count
In a CBC test, different blood components are measured, for example:
- Red blood cells;
- White blood cells;
- The average size of red blood cells;
- Hematocrit, the volume percentage of red blood cells in the whole blood.
Read the CBC test
Typically, there are the following symptoms in this health test:
- Red blood cells: 32-52.72 million per microliter in men – 3.90-53.03 cells per microliter in women.
- White blood cells: 3500 to 10500 cells per microliter.
- Platelets: 150,000 to 450,000 per microliter.
- Hemoglobin: 5-17.5 grams per deciliter in men and 15-15.5 grams per deciliter in women.
- Hematocrit: 38-35% in men and 5% in women 34.9%.
Abnormal levels of these can be a sign of the following side effects:
- Deficiency of nutrients such as vitamin B-6 or B-12;
- Iron deficiency;
- Disease in the bone marrow;
- Tissue swelling;
- Heart disease;
Blood enzyme test
In this test, the amount of specific enzymes in the body is measured. The body uses enzymes to control the chemical reactions that take place inside it.
A blood enzyme test can help your doctor diagnose conditions such as heart attacks.
- If a heart attack is possible, the heart’s enzyme troponin is measured, released only when damaged.
- The enzyme CPK-1 is found in the lungs and brain. High levels of this enzyme are a sign of brain damage or cancer.
- Another symptom of a heart attack or heart damage is the enzyme CKP-2.
- The enzyme CPK-3 is found in your heart and is released due to muscle swelling, injury, or strenuous exercise.
The coagulation test, also known as the coagulation test, looks for proteins involved in blood clotting. This test is recommended if your doctor suspects that you may have a coagulation complication.
If a person is taking warfarin or other blood thinners, your doctor may order a special coagulation test to monitor your period.
The results of this test are used to diagnose the following diseases:
- Acute myeloid leukemia;
- Hemophilia (excessive bleeding);
- Thrombosis or blood clots;
- Liver disease;
- Vitamin K deficiency
Blood lipid test
If you want to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease or other diseases associated with the accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries, you should have a lipoprotein or fattest. The following information is obtained in this experiment:
- Cholesterol levels of unsaturated fats (bad cholesterol);
- Cholesterol content of saturated fats (good cholesterol);
- Total cholesterol;
- Blood triglyceride levels.
Reading a blood lipid test
- Saturated fat content: If it is more than 60 mg per deciliter, it is high. If it is less than 40 mg / dL, it is less in men, and if it is less than 50 mg / dL, it is less in women.
- Unsaturated fat: If it is more than 160 mg per deciliter, it is high. If it is less than 100 mg, it is low.
You should not eat for 8 to 12 hours before a lipoprotein or fattest.
If the test results show abnormal cholesterol levels or triglycerides, it may indicate a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.
Basic metabolic test
Basal metabolic rate, or BMP, determines the number of different chemicals in the blood plasma. This test is also known as a blood test 8 and provides information about bones, muscles, and organs.
A basal metabolic test measures the amount of the following substances in the blood:
- carbon dioxide;
- Blood urea nitrogen;
BMP test gives you the following information
- Unbalanced calcium levels: Abnormal calcium levels can signify underlying diseases related to the kidneys, bones, cancer, malnutrition, or other diseases.
- Blood glucose levels: Abnormal blood glucose levels can signify diabetes or the risk of developing it. It would be best if you did not eat before this test.
- Kidneys: Excessive excretion in the blood, such as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, can signify kidney problems.
- Electrolytes: Abnormal electrolyte levels can be a sign of dehydration or kidney disease.
A thyroid test, or thyroid function test, shows how your thyroid produces or responds to certain hormones. For example:
- T3: This hormone, along with T4, regulates your heart rate and body temperature.
- RU: T3 resin uptake test measures thyroid-binding hormone to globin.
- T4: Thyroxine or T4 together with T3 regulates your metabolism and growth.
- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone or TSH: This substance helps regulate the number of hormones secreted by your thyroid.
Normal levels of these hormones:
- T3: 100-200 ng / dL.
- T3RU: Depends on the amount of T3 hormone. If the value of T3 is low, the value will be high and vice versa.
- T4: 5-12 micrograms per deciliter.
- TSH: up to 0.4-4 million units per liter.
Abnormal levels of these hormones in blood tests can signify various conditions, including protein deficiency, thyroid disorders, and abnormal levels of estrogen and progesterone.
Blood culture test
A blood culture test can help your doctor diagnose a blood infection. This test is prescribed if your doctor thinks you have an infection. The following symptoms may be a sign of infection:
- Fever or chills;
- Urine less than normal;
- Palpitations or rapid breathing;
- Swelling in various parts of the body;
- Severe drop in blood pressure.
In this test, a blood sample is mixed with the culture medium to allow bacteria in your blood to grow faster (if any).
What tests should we fast before?
Everything you eat and drink contains vitamins, proteins, and other nutrients that suddenly increase or decrease the number of certain elements in your blood.
Eating 8 to 12 hours before a blood test means that these variables do not affect the results. Common tests you should not eat before:
- Blood lipid test;
- Blood sugar test;
- Liver function;
- Kidney function;
- Basic metabolic test;
- Glucose test
How is a normal blood test done?
A blood test is usually done in a lab or doctor’s office and only takes a few minutes. To perform a blood test, nurse or laboratory technician:
- Cleanses the area of the hand from which blood is drawn.
- A plastic strip is attached to your arm to make the veins more visible.
- The needle gently inserts the syringe into your vein to collect blood.
- Remove the needle from your hand, open the plastic clip, and the test is over.
- The blood collection site is covered with a clean cotton swab and glued to it.
Risks of blood tests
The risks of routine testing are minimal:
- Pain and discomfort at the injection site;
- Fainting due to blood loss;
- Rupture of a vessel
The risk of infection is also very low. Contact your doctor immediately if you have symptoms such as swelling, redness, and fever.
Blood tests are one of the best methods of prevention. Your doctor may recommend a blood test for periodic checkups or if you have a specific illness. These tests are almost harmless and are very useful for assessing health.
Knowing this and consulting your doctor, you can include the mentioned tests in your care plan to live healthier.