Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common heart disease. This condition is often caused by a disorder called atherosclerosis or atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis occurs when fat builds up in the arteries of the heart. When plaque builds up, the arteries narrow, and blood flow to the heart becomes difficult. As the obstruction worsens, blood flow to the heart slows down, and a condition called angina may develop. At this time, a blocked or narrow artery can lead to a heart attack.
Several medications can be used to relieve angina pain caused by coronary artery disease. However, because drugs cannot clear blocked arteries, severely narrowed coronary arteries need more treatment to reduce a heart attack risk. In these cases, a treatment option is required for percutaneous arterial interventions, such as angioplasty or stenting.
What is a balloon Angioplasty?
Cardiologists perform angioplasty (heart balloon) to open the narrow coronary arteries. These specialists use a thin tube called a catheter that contains a small balloon at the tip. They place the balloon at the open artery blockage site to compress or flatten the artery wall’s plaque.
Balloon angioplasty can also be used to open narrow arteries in many other parts of the body.
For example, doctors perform carotid angioplasty to open narrow carotid arteries. Carotid arteries are the vessels that carry blood to the brain. Stroke often occurs when the carotid arteries become blocked, and the brain does not receive enough oxygen.
Balloon angioplasty can also be performed on the aortic artery (the main artery that comes from the heart), the iliac (inside the pelvis), the thigh (above the thigh), the fallopian tube (behind the knee), and the peroneal bone (lower leg).
What is a heart stent?
A stent is a small device made of metal. When a stent is placed in a coronary artery, it acts as a supporting structure or scaffold and keeps the vessel open. By keeping the arteries free, stents help increase blood flow to the heart and reduce angina pain.
The ballooning procedure is usually done with a heart stent. About 80% of balloon angioplasty patients also undergo a stenting procedure.
Like balloon angioplasty, doctors today use stents not only on the heart but also on different parts of the body. Stents can be placed in the carotid arteries of the neck, aorta, and peripheral arteries in the legs.
What happens during a balloon Angioplasty?
These procedures are performed in a cardiac catheterization laboratory. After midnight before surgery, patients are told to refrain from eating and drinking because not eating can affect blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, you should talk to your doctor about food and insulin.
The patient should talk to their doctor about any medications or supplements they are taking. This is especially true when a person is taking antiplatelet or blood thinners.
To anesthetize the catheter entry site, the anesthetic is injected into the area with a needle, after which a small incision is made in the skin. When doctors see the artery to insert the catheter, they use a unique needle to pierce it.
Doctors usually insert the catheter into an artery in the leg, arm, or wrist. Many doctors use leg arteries. However, access through the radial artery (wrist) is becoming a standard option.
Doctors gently insert the catheter into the artery and then into the heart. They use a video monitor, such as a TV screen, to watch the trend.
When the catheter reaches the blocked artery, a harmless dye is injected, and the doctor takes a picture of the person’s coronary arteries, called coronary angiograms. The angiogram helps the doctor see the size and location of the blockage.
When the doctor finds the obstruction’s exact location, he inserts a guided wire device through the same artery in the leg and directs it toward the block. Once it reaches the blockage site, the balloon swells. The balloon swells and presses on the plaque and presses it against the artery wall, the balloon empties. Doctors may inflate and inflate the balloon several times. After the heart ballooning process is completed, the catheter, guided wire, and empty balloon are removed from the patient.
If doctors plan to insert a stent into an artery, it is placed at the catheter’s tip and on the balloon.
As the catheter enters the occlusion site, the balloon swells and expands the stent. After opening the stent, the balloon is emptied. The catheter, guided wire, and empty balloon are then removed, holding the stent open to keep the artery open.
Intense pressure is applied to the area where the catheter is inserted to prevent any bleeding, and Also, it will be a dressing place.
This process takes about 1.5 to 2.5 hours, and most patients spend the night in the hospital after surgery. The person may feel drowsy until the sedative effect wears off. Nurses monitor the patient’s blood pressure and heart rate.
What happens after the balloon Angioplasty process?
After leaving the hospital, you should drink plenty of fluids and refrain from driving, bathing, or smoking for 1 or 2 days after surgery. Also, sitting or walking for a long time should be avoided for at least two days after the operation.
If you receive a stent, you should refrain from strenuous activity for 30 days. If you have had angioplasty with or without a stent, you should continue to take aspirin for the rest of your daily life. If stenting is done, the person should take antiplatelet or blood thinners for a year or more. Your doctor will tell you when and how to handle these medicines.
About 35 to 40 percent of patients with a heart balloon are likely to have an obstruction at the treatment site, a condition known as spinal stenosis. Recurrent stenosis usually occurs in the first six months after a heart balloon. Also, the arteries in which the stent is placed can be closed again, and about 20% of patients with stents regenerate. In case of restenosis, patients may need a heart balloon or other stenting.
Can Spinal stenosis be prevented?
Doctors are constantly trying to find new ways to prevent the arteries from closing again after angioplasty or stenting. In recent years, doctors have used new types of stents. Some of these cases are impregnated with drugs that help prevent the arteries from closing again. These implanted stents slowly release their drugs into the tissue around the stent and prevent it from narrowing.
Other stents are impregnated with blood-thinning drugs to prevent blood clots from forming. Researchers have recently begun developing stents that dissolve in blood vessels over time. These stents open the artery, have the same results as metal stents, and reduce the risk of re-narrowing because they remain in the artery.