What is the difference between IQ and emotional intelligence? Can any person with a high IQ score be considered a genius? How is the brain structure of geniuses different from ordinary humans?
The term IQ or Intelligence Quotient is generally used to refer to a test score that indicates the test subject’s cognitive skills compared to the general population. Intelligence Quotient tests use a standard scale with the number 10000 as the average grade point average. In most tests, a score between 90 and 1401, or in other words, an average score plus or minus 10, indicates average intelligence. A score above 1330 indicates exceptional intelligence, and a score below 70 may indicate mental retardation in the test subject. Modern intelligence tests are considered the same as older intelligence tests. When determining the Intelligence Quotient score for a child or adolescent, their age is also included in the calculations. Children are classified and compared to a population at their level of development.
The fundamental question is, what exactly does this cognitive skill measure mean? What factor or criteria do these tests measure and compare in a person’s brain? If we want to give a simple answer, we must say that IQ tests are designed to measure a person’s ability to solve problems and understand concepts. These include the ability to reason, the ability to solve problems, the ability to understand the relationships between phenomena, and the ability to store and retrieve information. Intelligence Quotient tests measure a person’s general thinking ability in several different ways. For example, in an IQ test, the following may be measured:
- Spatial Ability: The ability to visualize manipulation and shape changes
- Math Ability: The ability to solve problems and use logic
- Linguistic ability: This type can include completing sentences or recognizing words when individual letters or parts of the text or phrase are cluttered or deleted.
- Memory Ability: The ability to recall items that are presented visually or aurally
The questions in each of these categories are used to test a particular cognitive skill in the individual, But many psychologists believe these questions also show general thinking abilities. Most people do better than others when it comes to certain types of questions; However, experts have found that most people who excel in one subject area do just as well in other categories, and if someone does poorly in one subject area, they will do the same in other areas. Experts ultimately theorize that there is a general element of intellectual ability determining other specific cognitive abilities’ quality. Ideally, an Intelligence Quotient test measures the overall intelligence factor, abbreviated g. Therefore, the best tests can provide questions from various intellectual ability categories so that the test does not tend to a specific skill. One particular skill category should not be more important than the other.
Because IQ tests measure a person’s ability to grasp ideas, not their knowledge, learning new information does not automatically increase a person’s Quotient. Learning may train the human mind, and this practice can help a person develop more cognitive skills, But scientists do not have a complete and comprehensive understanding of this relationship. The relationship between learning and mental ability is still mostly unknown; Just as the brain’s work and the nature of intellectual abilities remain mysterious to us. Intellectual ability depends more on genetic factors than environmental factors; However, most experts believe that the environment plays a vital role in developing people’s intellectual abilities.
Can we increase IQ?
But can we increase our Intelligence Quotient score? There is evidence that children develop higher thinking abilities if they grow and eat better early in life. Also, having a greater degree of mental activity and preschool motivation helps increase children’s IQ scores for a few elementary school years. Still, it does not permanently increase Intelligence Quotient scores. In most cases, the IQ scores of adults do not increase significantly over time. There is evidence that maintaining intellectual space (by learning new skills or solving puzzles) enhances cognitive skills. Having an exercise program helps boost your physical strength and increase your physical abilities, But these changes are not permanent and have little effect on the Intelligence Quotient score.
Therefore, the Intelligence Quotient score of any individual is relatively stable, regardless of what degree they obtain or what degree they complete. Of course, this does not mean that you can not increase your intelligence. IQ tests are just an incomplete method of measuring certain aspects of intellectual ability. Many critics point out that Intelligence Quotient tests do not measure things like creativity, social skills, wisdom, acquired abilities, or a set of other things that we consider to be aspects of intelligence. The value of Quotient Intelligence tests is that they determine general cognitive skills. As we have noted, general cognitive skills are a very accurate indicator of an individual’s intellectual potential. There is a positive relationship between Intelligence Quotient and success at school and work, But there are several cases in which a person’s IQ and level of success do not match.
What goes on in the brains of scientists?
So far, we have learned the general definition of IQ and its nature. But we all know that people in human society are admired for their intelligence. We know them as geniuses, and we have always believed that geniuses have a higher level of “intelligence” and, in a sense, a higher IQ score. In the following, we will look at geniuses and how their intelligence mechanism works, and we will answer the question, what is going on in the brains of geniuses?
Einstein and Newton: Symbols of genius in the world of modern science
In 1905, Albert Einstein developed the theory of special relativity. He also proved that atoms exist and found that light behaves as both a particle and a wave. In the same year, as a turning point in his work, he developed the famous equation of mass and energy equivalence with the formula E = mc²; An equation that shows the relationship between matter and energy. Almost all of us know this part. Anyone who has read a brief account of Einstein’s life or an article on relativity basics has seen this equation. Still, we pay less attention to one point, and you may have been unaware of it: Albert Einstein was only 286 years old when presenting these achievements.
Undoubtedly, Einstein was a genius; Just as Isaac Newton is a genius of history. Newton is, in a nutshell, a physicist. He also played an essential role in the development of calculus (differential and integral calculus). These are lessons that some people fail to fully understand even after extensive study and long hours of learning in the classroom.
Another famous genius is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. He started making music at the age of five. Mozart created hundreds of pieces before his death in 1860 at the age of 35.
According to common sense, geniuses are different from ordinary people. They can think faster and better than others. Also, many people think that all of these extraordinary brain abilities lead to abnormal or quirky behaviors. Although geniuses are relatively easy to identify, the exact definition of what makes a person a genius is a little more complicated. It becomes even more challenging to discern how and in what way this person becomes a known genius.
Two important factors make it challenging to study geniuses.
- The label or title of genius is a subjective matter. Some people insist that anyone with an IQ score above a certain amount should be considered a genius. Others believe that Quotient tests measure only a limited amount of a person’s general knowledge and skills. Finally, some believe that higher scores on Intelligence Quotient tests have little or no relationship with real geniuses or that the correlation between the two factors is low.
- Genius is a concept with a big picture. Although most “scientific” and “medical research” examines the details in this field, it is still not easy to measure, analyze, or study a concept that is so subjective and inherent.
Therefore, when examining how a genius performs, it is best to define ourselves in the first place about geniuses and genius. This article will not just consider a genius as someone with a too high Intelligence Quotient. In contrast, we define a genius as a knowledgeable person who opens a new field or path for human beings with his discoveries, inventions, and works of art. A genius’s work changes the way people look at the world or the context in which it is done. In other words, the genius must be intelligent and able to use this information and intelligence in a constructive or significant way.
But what makes a person able to do all this? Do these processes require a different and agile brain? Is such intelligence exceptional? Is paying attention to information that others may find irrelevant or ignored a sign of competence? To answer these questions, we must go to the source of logic and knowledge in the human body: the brain.
The relationship between genius and the human brain
The brain regulates the systems of a person’s body. As you move, the brain sends waves through the nerves and commands its muscles what to do. Your brain controls the abilities of the five senses. You experience and process your emotions using your brain. In addition to all this, the brain allows the person to think, analyze information, and solve problems. But the question related to this article is how does the brain make a person smart?
Scientists do not know precisely how gray matter works in the human brain, But they have ideas about which parts of the brain make a person think. The cerebral cortex, which makes up the bulk of the brain, is where thinking and reasoning occur. These are higher functions of our brain. Lower functions linked to a person’s basic survival occur in the brain’s deeper parts.
The cerebral cortex is the largest part of the brain and has many wrinkles. These folds allow the brain to be placed inside the skull. If we remove the human cerebral cortex and open it wide, it will be the size of several pages of a newspaper. The cerebral cortex is divided into several lobes, and different areas in these lobes do certain things about how a person thinks. We do not want to examine the function and structure of the brain in this article; But here’s a quick look at what happens to each lobe:
- Frontal lobe: Speaking, thinking, and memory
- Parietal lobe: The sensory input of the body
- Temporal lobe or temporal lobe: auditory information from the ear
- Occipital lobe: Visual information from the eyes
The cerebral cortex has a significant influence on thinking. But carefully examining how the cerebral cortex makes a person smart is a bit difficult and deceptive, and for some reason:
- Access to the brain is difficult; It is located inside the skull and is protected by this layer.
- Instruments such as high-intensity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices that observe the brain sometimes require the subject to remain completely still. This makes it difficult for doctors to monitor the activities of a person’s brain during daily life.
These changes may make it difficult to compare a dead person’s brain with the brain of a living person. Also, postmortem experiments cannot assess brain activity.
Despite all these challenges, researchers have uncovered several important points about how the brain affects intelligence. For example, a 2004 study at the University of California, Irvine, found that gray matter volume in parts of the cerebral cortex had a more significant effect on intelligence than total brain volume. The findings show that instead of having a centralized intelligence center, many parts of the brain’s physical characteristics affect how intelligent a person is.
The relationship between smoking and intelligence
According to the findings of a study published in 2004, smokers and former smokers could not perform similarly to non-smokers in the same tests. Four hundred sixty-five people underwent tests to determine the level of cognitive skills in 1326 (13947) at the age of 100. They retook exams between 2000 and 2004 (2000-2004). According to the results, smoking reduced cognitive function by one percent. A possible explanation for this connection is that smoking-related lung damage causes less oxygen to reach the brain.
The brain of geniuses
It seems that the analyses performed on Albert Einstein’s brain in 1378 (1899 AD) also support this theory. Einstein’s brain was slightly smaller than average for the human brain. However, parts of his parietal lobe were more comprehensive than the parietal lobes of many others. Larger areas of Einstein’s brain are related to mathematics and spatial reasoning. In addition, Einstein’s parietal lobe had almost no gaps found in most human brains. Analysts believed that the lack of such a gap meant that his brain’s different areas could communicate better.
An article in the journal nature in 2006 (2006) theorized that how the brain develops is more important than the size of the brain itself. The human cerebral cortex becomes thicker in the transition from childhood and thinner during adolescence. According to research, the process of thickening in the brains of children with higher IQ is more than other children. Studies also show that children inherit some intelligence from their parents. Some researchers believe that the physical structure of the brain may be an inherited trait. Also, the process of becoming a magnificent and quality phenomenon in any work both requires the brain and encourages it to manage better and organize specific tasks.
Although scientists do not know precisely how or why this happens, it is clear that the human brain plays a crucial role in human intelligence. But what is the difference between genius and intelligence? And what makes one person smarter than another? We will continue to examine the relationship between intelligence and genius. But before continuing this discussion, let us refer to a historical example.
Mozart music and children’s intelligence!
Following the publication of studies showing that listening to Mozart could boost Intelligence Quotient scores, some parents began distributing Mozart works to their children. They hoped to use Mozart’s effect. One explanation for Mozart’s work is that music makes people more lively and alert. Another explanation is listening to Mozart and performing math, or spatial reasoning activities rely on the brain’s neurons. However, none of Mozart’s studies have used infants as experimental subjects, and Mozart’s effect in adults is usually temporary.
Intelligence and genius
Measuring intelligence can be as tricky as a genius. Psychologists and humanities scientists are doing extensive research in this area. One field of study, called psychometrics, is devoted to the study and measurement of intelligence. But even in that field, experts do not always know exactly what is going on and analyze it. On the other hand, while intelligence is at the heart of genius, not all geniuses have performed well on intelligence tests or in school.
IQ tests have been around for thousands of years. In 2200 BC, Chinese emperors used tests of merit or ability to evaluate government employees. The tests we know as the IQ test emerged as the nineteenth century approached. Today, Intelligence Quotient tests usually measure individual memory and language, spatial, and mathematical abilities. As we have said, these tests theoretically measure a concept or factor called g. You can think of gas as a unit of measurement or a way of expressing one’s intelligence.
Intelligence Quotient tests are also standardized; So most people get a score between 90 and 160. In general, Intelligence Quotient scores for a large group of people will look like a bell-shaped curve when presented in a graph, and most people will be in the mid-range. The common misconception is that anyone with an IQ above a certain number (often 1840) is automatically a genius. But despite high-IQ-focused organizations, many scientists warn that there is no such thing as a genius Intelligence Quotient.
Many researchers think that standard IQ tests generally perform well in predicting how a child will do in school. As a result, schools often use these tests to determine which students can enroll in special education classes or special classes for gifted students. Most universities and some employers also use standardized tests as part of their selection process.
However, despite their pervasiveness, these tests are not without their drawbacks. For example, some minorities and individuals with lower incomes receive lower scores than other individuals or racial and economic groups. Critics say this makes IQ tests invalid or unfair. Another group argues that instead of deeming IQ testing unfair, we should acknowledge that society is unjust and discriminated against, and prejudice.
Also, some researchers and theorists argue that the concept of g is too limited and does not provide a complete view of individual intelligence. Instead, these researchers believe that intelligence is a combination of many factors. One theory that seeks to provide a complete view of intelligence is Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence (MI). According to Gardner, there are seven types of intelligence:
- Mathematical logic
- Body Bastard (Touch)
Many parents and educators feel that these categorizations express the strengths of different children more accurately. But critics claim that Gardner’s definitions are too broad and pervasive to make intelligence meaningless.
Are we becoming smarter from generation to generation?
Scientists have noticed a general upward trend in general IQ scores for several years. Each generation seems to be a little smarter than the previous generation. Researchers are unsure whether advances in education, nutrition, medical care, or society as a whole are responsible for this trend. The above increase trend is known as the Flynn effect.
Intelligence and adaptability
One of the mental stereotypes about gifted children is school problems and does not fit with the school environment and education. Several scientific studies show that existing stereotypes are rooted in reality. Pardi University’s research study of 4,200 gifted students found that they are often vulnerable to bullying or coercion by their schoolmates. A 220-year study of gifted children in 1319 showed that the process of maladaptation continues into adulthood. In this study, a test was used to measure verbal intelligence and personal adjustment. People who scored more than 1,640 on verbal intelligence received lower scores on personal adjustment.
A look at existing theories
Another limiting theory is the three-dimensional theory of human intelligence by Robert J. Sternberg. According to Starnberg, human intelligence includes the following:
- Creative intelligence or the ability to come up with new and exciting ideas
- Analytical intelligence or the ability to examine facts and draw conclusions
- Practical intelligence or the ability to be in the environment
According to Sternberg, a person’s overall intelligence is a combination of these three abilities. Critics claim that he has little empirical evidence for his theories. They also argue that practical intelligence is not intelligence; it can be explained in other intelligence theories.
Theories of triple and multiple intelligences are both relatively new, and critics have pointed out their weaknesses. However, these two theories may explain the concept of genius better than traditional IQ tests. Geniuses are not just people with a lot of g-criteria. Mozart, for example, combined musical genius with an innate understanding of mathematics and patterns. Einstein’s genius dominated the fields of logic, mathematics, and spatial relations. All geniuses have one thing in common: they have a lot of creative intelligence, and without creative intelligence, they would never be geniuses. Geniuses are brilliant in simple language.
How much creativity is needed to be a genius; In the following, we will talk about how imagination and productivity contribute to genius flourishing.
Genius and creativity
So far, we have found a vast difference between being smart and being a genius. While geniuses are brilliant, they also use their imagination and creativity to invent, discover, or create something new in their field of interest. Instead of merely remembering or re-reading existing information, they try to come up with new ones.
Geniuses usually do not act in isolation. Almost all of them analyze other works done by great minds and use this information for discoveries. On the other hand, self-taught geniuses often explore information in unexpected or ingenious ways due to their lack of formal training. In any case, imagining new possibilities and possibilities is as vital as an individual’s overall intelligence.
Separating, measuring, or explaining creativity and imagination can be as tricky as intelligence. Some researchers believe that creative people have more latent self-control than others. Hidden restraint is the unconscious and intuitive ability to ignore trivial stimuli. Researchers estimate that creative people receive more motivation from the world around them, Or they turn a blind eye to the world around them. Perhaps this phenomenon can explain why people who seem creative are more prone to mental illness. People who cannot limit and select stimuli and are emotionally disabled are more likely to need psychotherapy.
Creativity also seems to have some traits in common with bipolar disorder. A person with bipolar disorder experiences increased energy, concentration, and motivation during periods of mania. As a result, bipolar disorder is more common among writers and artists than usual, But scientists have not found a cause-and-effect relationship between them.
The creativity of geniuses is also associated with high productivity and work. Sometimes the most prominent examples of genius come from people who have done their best in their early teens. However, not all geniuses offer exceptional work early in life. Great people like Einstein and Mozart are in the first category. Ludwig von Beethoven can mention whose best works are related to his life’s last periods as an example of the second category.
What is Savannah Syndrome?
People with Savant syndrome are often described as geniuses. Savannah Syndrome is a rare condition that commonly affects people with autism or patients with developmental disorders. People with Savannah syndrome have a remarkable mastery of specific tasks or skills. The story of Rainy Man, directed by Barry Levinson and produced in 1988, is about a man with the same syndrome. (Autism: Symptoms, Cause, And Treatment Of Autism)
What is the difference between creativity and genius?
In line with this age difference, according to researcher David Gallenson, creative people fall into two main types:
- Conceptual innovators; think violently and dramatically, and they do their best at a young age.
- Experimental innovators; Who learn through trial and error and show their best performance after a lengthy trial
Critics believe that Galson’s theory ignores people who do extraordinary things throughout their lives. His latest research shows that creativity can be expressed as a continuum or sequence. Individuals can have one of them to a greater extent, rather than necessarily having one of the empirical or conceptual states; Or maybe both equally.
Maybe we can never know what the source and cause of creativity are? Why do some people use their creativity more than others? Or why are some people more creative at certain times in their lives? We may find that a person, by striking the right balance between brain ability, intelligence, and creativity, eventually presents himself as a genius. But it is clear to all of us that geniuses are at the center of attention in advances in science, technology, and human scientific understanding. Our understanding of mathematics, literature, and music without geniuses would be quite different from today. We now have considerable knowledge of the concepts still obscure: gravity, planetary orbits, and black holes.
What is Emotional Intelligence or EQ?
There is a common saying among corporate employees: what you know does not matter; What matters is the people you know. As a result of such a view, employees are encouraged to perform their functions with greater satisfaction and satisfaction during working hours and avoid being left alone at lunchtime or on similar occasions, in the event of an accidental encounter with their boss in the elevator or hallway. Hit him. Even the most capable and knowledgeable employees will be prevented from being promoted and promoted if they cannot work in small groups or communicate with their colleagues. People who perform well in managing these challenges are likely to have higher emotional intelligence; Emotional intelligence (Emotional intelligence) can regulate and control how they feel about themselves and others.
The term emotional intelligence, or EQ, was coined in 1995 on the cover of Daniel Golman. The book’s cover also had a clever subtitle: Why [emotional intelligence] could be more important than IQ. We talked about IQ in detail. Gelman’s book provides examples of IQ scores’ inefficiency in predicting earnings power or success and happiness in a person’s life. Gelman argued that to make a correct prediction of such cases, instead of referring to the IQ score, we should refer to another indicator called emotional intelligence and use one’s emotions to improve one’s life path better navigation. Do. While IQ scores rely on a person’s ability to identify the correct answer, real-life life is sometimes much more complicated than just a correct answer. We may be faced with several solutions or the right answer at the same time. On the other hand, the ability to take the path to success in real life depends on something more than just a personality type or a score.
Emotional intelligence has remained an important and exciting subject since the publication of Gelman’s book. Therefore, researchers differ somewhat on the exact definition of emotional intelligence and how it is measured. At the same time, researchers must answer another question: What does emotional intelligence mean to our brains? What is the difference between mathematical intelligence and emotional intelligence? Does emotional intelligence also have a specific origin in the human brain? Is emotional intelligence more than just an indicator of a person’s future success? Can emotional intelligence, in general, indicate the health of the functioning of the human brain? In the remainder of this article, we will look at emotional intelligence’s role in predicting the likelihood of a person engaging in depression, dementia, and other brain disorders.
The relationship between emotional intelligence or EQ and the human brain
Individual IQ scores remain the gold standard in intelligence-related debates; IQ is a number that is considered as a permanent record or record for a person. As a result, scientists have tried to use this quantitative index to determine the brain’s functional state. In this regard, studies have been conducted on dementia, in which memory is impaired, and the person gradually loses the ability to remember simple facts and cases. There is a significant decrease in cognitive function based on a person’s IQ score and decreased dementia. Therefore, a decreased IQ score has been used as a predictor of dementia.
However, this method also has drawbacks because people with high IQs show signs of dementia much later and get higher cognitive test scores. But these people suddenly experience a severe decline after the onset of symptoms; Because, at that time, the work was over, and the disease had progressed a lot. Moreover, because they score much higher than ordinary people, they miss out on the usual opportunities for treatment and early preventive intervention. On the other hand, people with low IQs may be mistaken for dementia symptoms because of their low-performance scores.
Because dementia is often associated with emotional distress and memory impairment, it may help use emotional intelligence to diagnose the disease. But how much does emotion affect the brain? While many parts of the brain may regulate emotions, these values differ in the left and right hemispheres. The right side of the brain contains sensitive information about emotions and processes them. This information is then sent to the brain’s left side, which is responsible for language affairs. The left side of the brain assigns names and titles to these emotions. However, the cerebellum’s focal process is the amygdala nucleus and the corpus callosum, which transmit information between the right and left hemispheres. While we may not know everything about emotional intelligence, it is reasonable to assume that low levels of emotional intelligence may be due to poor performance in one of these parts of the brain.
But can we use this data to ensure brain health? Not yet. Because scientists still do not know what causes brain disorders. However, emotional intelligence can be more critical in identifying and eliminating risk factors. For example, smoking is a risk factor for many brain disorders. Still, a study by the University of Barcelona found that students with high emotional intelligence were less likely to use tobacco or marijuana. These students seemed to adjust their emotional situations so that they were less tempted to use tobacco products. However, people with lower emotional intelligence may resort to substance abuse to compensate for inappropriate emotional situations.
Similarly, while a person with a high IQ can understand the basics of nutrition, an intelligent person (with good emotional intelligence) may be better able to choose the right food options. Researchers in one study found that people with higher emotional intelligence could choose better products in the store. The ability to choose healthier products may protect emotionally intelligent people from risk factors such as obesity.
Emotional intelligence is also associated with better stress management and stress reduction, as well as reducing depression. People who are unable to recognize and control their emotions are more likely to feel dissatisfied with life. Can a person who is continuously dissatisfied with life be a good friend to those around him? While it may be clear, we should note that people with high emotional intelligence provide better social networks to help themselves; The same sociality causes the onset of dementia in the individual to be delayed. Because emotionally intelligent people interact with different people, they may be more inclined to see a doctor and seek medical advice.
There seem to be several positive relationships between high emotional intelligence and brain health; But what happens if you lack emotional intelligence? In the final part of the article, we discuss the consequences of the lack of emotional intelligence.
Lack of emotional intelligence and psychological complications
Robert Haier, a Canadian psychologist, conducted a study in 1991. This study suggests that psychopaths may have different brains than the rest of us. While psychopaths are mentally aware of the laws of society, they are not emotionally intelligent. General states of psychosis include impulsivity, ambitious goals without a plan or focus to achieve them, fatigue, lack of close personal attachments, and empathy. As he controlled the brain waves of the psychopaths while patients were examining certain words (emotionally charged to most normal people), he found no activity in the parts of the psychopathic brain supposed to be emotional. He called them emotionally blind people.
From these findings, it appears that psychopaths have abnormal brain functions in areas related to emotion and language processing; In other words, there are logical neurological reasons for some heinous crimes. If these psychopaths are tested for IQ, they will probably look completely normal. It is the lack of emotional intelligence that causes disorders in the health of the brain.
If a person is at the bottom of the emotional intelligence spectrum, they may develop a condition called emotional insufficiency or alexithymia. Alexithymia is the inability to understand or express emotions. Scientists hypothesize that alexithymia may be related to a malfunction in the right hemisphere or some form of overactivity in the left hemisphere from what they know about the brain’s emotions. In addition, the corpus callosum (the part of the brain that controls communication between the left and right sides of the brain) may also be damaged in a way that blocks the transmission of messages related to a person’s emotions.
Alexithymia sometimes presents as a severe blow to the head after a brain injury. This complication may eventually lead us to more conclusions about brain disorders and such traumas. For example, alexithymia has been linked to eating and appetite disorders, panic disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It may also provide scientists with clues about autism spectrum disorders. One of the common themes in autism spectrum disorders is the lack of emotional connection so that people with the disorder can not correctly perceive social symptoms. Decreased cerebellar activity is also associated with autism and Asperger syndrome.
Emotional intelligence and leadership ability
Feelings and emotions may be essential factors in determining the right people to lead and lead communities. Fred Greenstein, a professor of politics at Princeton University, has written a book evaluating 11 US presidents and their six leadership qualities; Including cognitive style and emotional intelligence. Greenstein found that Eisenhower, Ford, and George W. Bush were free from emotional conflicts that could affect their leadership. On the other hand, Johnson, Carter, Nixon, and Clinton have had emotional disorders, and these disorders have also affected their presidency.
Intelligence and emotional intelligence are both critical. From all the facts mentioned in this article, we can conclude that some aspects of our minds are acquired, and others are beyond our control. To improve our quality of life, we must focus on the first category.