Medical

How to use and side effects of heparin

Heparin or sodium heparin is an anticoagulant (blood thinner) used to prevent blood clots from forming or from joining and expanding, and in cases such as venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and peripheral artery embolism. However, improper use of heparin increases the risk of bleeding, which can be severe and even life-threatening.

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Points to consider before taking heparin
You should talk to your doctor about heparin if you have certain conditions. These conditions include:

  • Infection of the heart (bacterial endocarditis);
  • Blood pressure that is out of control;
  • Blood clotting disorders;
  • Stomach or intestinal disorder;
  • Liver disease;
  • menstruation period;

 

Contraindications to heparin:

You should not take this medicine if you are allergic to heparin.
Injectable heparin should not be used to flush the intravenous catheter. Bleeding can occur if the catheter is flushed with the wrong form of heparin. A separate catheter lock washing product is available.
If you have uncontrolled bleeding, severe platelet deficiency, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, or heparin-deficient platelets, you should not use heparin.

 

Induced thrombocytopenia is what?

Heparin can lower your platelet count, which is referred to as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. A blood clot can form inside a blood vessel and cause a stroke or heart attack. Clots can even form after heparin is stopped for a few weeks. Ask your doctor to check your platelet count.

How to take heparin

Several factors affect the prescribed dose, the type of drug, and how to use it, including:

Patient age;
Type of disease;
Illness severity;
Other drugs;

Heparin vs Warfarin video

How to react to the first dose of the drug

when it is administered subcutaneously or intravenously. The first dose of subcutaneous drug is injected by a doctor in order to teach you how to inject it correctly, but intravenous heparin must be injected by a doctor or nurse in a hospital.

Follow the instructions exactly in the package leaflet. Your doctor may alter the dosage from time to time. Consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

Don’t take injectable medications unless you need them. Don’t use the drug if it changes color or if particles are found in it. Prepare a new drug instead.

Do not inject medicine into children with syringes. There is too much heparin in these syringes for children.

You should only take the medications prescribed by your doctor and follow the prescribed dosage carefully to avoid medication mistakes.

When you need surgery or dental services, tell your doctor if you need heparin.
Keep the medicine at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
Each syringe and needle should only be used once.
The medicine should not be given to children or animals.
Instead of injectable heparin, you can use an oral blood thinner. You should not stop the injection without consulting your doctor. For a short time, both injectable and oral forms may be necessary.

Heparin dose:

An overview of the drug’s dosage for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

1. Heparin dose for adults (18 to 59 years)

A typical starting dose is 333 units per kilogram of body weight.
Subcutaneously every 12 hours, 250 units per kilogram of body weight. Change the injection site each time to prevent blood clots from forming.

 

2. Heparin dose for children (0-17 years old)

Based on the child’s illness and medical history, the doctor will determine the dose.

 

3. Heparin dose for the elderly (over 60 years)

This group of people is more likely to suffer bleeding, so your doctor may start with a low dose of medication.

How to prevent deep vein thrombosis after surgery

 

1. Heparin dose for adults (18 to 59 years)

Your doctor or nurse may inject you with 5,000 units of heparin two hours before surgery.
Dose: 5000 units of subcutaneous injection every 8 to 12 hours. This dose should be injected yourself for up to 7 days, or until you begin walking.

 

2. Heparin dose for children (0 to 17 years)

Based on the child’s illness and medical history, the doctor will determine the dosage.

 

3. Heparin dose for the elderly (over 60 years)

Bleeding is more likely in these people, and your doctor may start treating them with low doses of medication.

Forget heparin
If you don’t use the medicine properly or forget to take it, it won’t work properly. Heparin must be taken at certain times in order to work properly. Take the forgotten amount as soon as you remember. Do not double the dose of heparin if you are close to the next dose. It can have dangerous side effects, such as heavy bleeding.

Symptoms of substance abuse include:
Easy bruising;
blood flow;
The presence of blood in the urine or feces;
Black or tarry stools;
Any bleeding without interruption

Heparin does not cause drowsiness, but it can cause other side effects. Call the emergency room right away if you have heparin allergy symptoms. These symptoms include:

  • nausea;
  • Vomit;
  • Sweating;
  • Itching;
  • Respiratory problem;
  • Weakness;
  • Swelling of the face, lips, tongue or throat.

 

The most common side effects of heparin are:

Allergic reaction;
Abnormal bleeding or bruising;
Uncontrolled or prolonged bleeding;
Increase in liver enzymes in liver function tests.
Severe side effects of heparin
Hot or pale skin;
Chest pain, irregular heartbeat;
Shortness of breath, dizziness, anxiety, sweating;
Any abnormal bleeding or bruising;
Severe pain or swelling in the stomach, back, or groin;
Heavier periods than usual;
Dark or blue skin of hands and feet;
Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite;
Fever, chills, hives, itching, burning sensation;
Persistent bleeding gums;
Unusual fatigue;
Uninterrupted bleeding;
Experiencing bleeding, blood in the urine or feces, black or tarry stools, or vomiting blood or coffee beans.

 

Contact your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms:

  • Discoloration at the injection site;
  • Fever, chills, runny nose or runny eyes;
  • Bruising, abnormal bleeding, purple or red spots under the skin;
  • Symptoms of blood clots include numbness or sudden weakness, difficulty seeing or talking, swelling or redness in one arm or leg.

 

Heparin induced bleeding

Because heparin makes blood clotting difficult, it can cause heavy bleeding or easier bruising. Rarely, bleeding can also be longer than usual and even fatal. Regular blood clotting tests are therefore imperative. Having these tests scheduled will help your doctor decide whether you should take heparin. When taking heparin, you should not use this medicine if you cannot have regular blood clotting tests.

During and after the discontinuation of heparin use, bleeding can occur. Bleeding is more common in the elderly, especially in women over 60. Heparin can also cause internal bleeding.

 

Drug interaction with heparin

The use of heparin in conjunction with some medications, such as aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may increase the risk of bleeding. These drugs include:

Ibuprofen;
Naproxen;
Celecoxib;
Diclofenac;
Indomethacin;
Ketoprofen;
Mefenamic acid;
Nabumetone;

 

Consult your doctor about taking some medications. These drugs include:

Thinners of the blood (warfarin, coumadin, jantavin);
Dipyridamole and clopidogrel are antiplatelet drugs.
Hydroxychloroquine;
Herbal supplements such as garlic;
Finger flower;
Tetracycline;
Antihistamines

Heparin-lowering drugs
Certain medications can reduce the effects of heparin. Examples include:

Digoxin;
Tetracycline antibiotics such as doxycycline and minocycline;
Nitrates such as isosorbide, mononitrate and nitroglycerin;
Antihistamines such as diphenhydramine;
Nicotine

Heparin can cause complications if you have certain diseases. These diseases include:

Liver disease.
kidney disease.
History of ulceration or bleeding in the stomach. Heparin should not be used if you have an active stomach ulcer. If you have a stomach ulcer or are bleeding, this medicine can make it worse. Be sure to consult your doctor about this.

Asthma or an allergy to sulfite. For some people, sulfite can be deadly. Some types of heparin contain sulfite, so ask your doctor for sulfate-free heparin.

during pregnancy
The fetus is negatively affected by heparin in animal studies. However, insufficient studies have been conducted on the effects of heparin on the human fetus. Consult your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Heparin-free preservatives may be best. Consult your doctor immediately if you become pregnant while taking heparin.

during lactation
Heparin enters breast milk and is absorbed by the baby. Consult your doctor about how to feed your baby while taking heparin. Heparin contains a preservative called benzyl alcohol, which can not only slow down the nervous system of some babies, but also cause respiratory problems and changes to the blood’s chemical composition. The effects are sometimes fatal. Talk to your doctor about using heparin without preservatives if you are breastfeeding.

children
No studies have been done on the effects of heparin on children. The recommended dose is therefore based on clinical experience. Babies should be given heparin without preservatives. Benzyl alcohol contained in heparin can cause severe side effects and even death in infants.

elderly
increases your risk of bleeding if you are over 60. However, heparin also increases the risk of bleeding. As a result, your doctor may start your treatment with a low dose of medication.

 

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