Everything you need to know about retinal disease

The retina is a thin layer of tissue in the back wall of the eye that contains millions of light-sensitive cells and other cells that receive and organize visual information. The retina transmits data to the brain through the optic nerve.

Retinal diseases are very different, but most of them cause visual symptoms. Retinal diseases can affect any part of the retina, some of which are treatable, and if left untreated, retinopathy can lead to severe vision loss and even blindness.


Symptoms of various retinal diseases:

Many retinal diseases have typical signs and symptoms that we will present in this section:

  • See moving points
  • Blurred vision
  • Side vision problems

These problems can occur in both eyes or one eye.


When should I see a doctor?

It is essential to pay attention to any changes in vision and see a doctor if you have any of these symptoms, warning signs of severe retinal disease.


Different types of retinal diseases include the following:

Retinal rupture occurs when the cleansing layer of the eye contracts and stretches this layer over the retina, often caused by symptoms such as moving spots.

Retinal detachment: Retinal detachment is defined as the presence of fluid under the retina, which usually occurs when fluid passes through the retinal detachment and causes the retina to rise from the underlying tissue layers.


Diabetic retinopathy: If you have diabetes, the small blood vessels behind the eyes may cause fluid to leak in and out of the retina, causing your retina to swell and blur your vision. In such cases, the capillaries may bleed, which shakes the person’s vision.

Erythematous membrane: The erythematous membrane is a thin membrane that forms on the retina and causes vision problems, in which objects appear blurred or crooked.

Risk factors for retinal disease include aging, diabetes or other conditions, trauma to the eye, or a family history of retinal disease.


Diagnosis of retinal diseases

The ophthalmologist performs detailed eye examinations to diagnose retinal patients and looks for various abnormalities in different parts of the eye.


The following tests may be done to determine the location and severity of the disease:

Amsler network test: The doctor uses this test to determine central visual acuity. He asks you if the grid lines look faded or broken. If you have macular degeneration, you may also be asked to do this test at home.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): This test is a great way to take accurate pictures of the retina to detect erythema, macular degeneration, and canola swelling.

Fluorescein angiography: This test is used to identify blood vessels in the back of the retina and identify problems such as leaks, bleeding, or abnormal blood vessels.

Indocyanine green angiography: This test uses a dye that glows when exposed to infrared light. Images show retinal blood vessels and more profound, stiffer blood vessels behind the retina called the choroid.

Ultrasound: In this test, high-frequency sound waves are used to help observe the retina and other structures of the eye, and also, through this, some tissue features that help diagnose and treat eye tumors can be used. It is slowly identified.

CT and MRI: In rare cases, these imaging techniques can assess eye damage or a tumor.


Treatment of retinal diseases

The main goals of treating retinal diseases are to stop or slow the disease’s progression and maintain, improve or restore vision. In many cases, vision damage is irreversible, and early diagnosis is essential. Your doctor will work with you to determine the best treatment.


Treating a retinal patient can be complex and sometimes urgent. Options are:

Laser surgery: Laser surgery can repair a retinal tear. The surgeon will use a laser to heat small spots on the retina, which connect the retina to the underlying tissue. This treatment separates the retina from the underlying tissue.

Abnormal shrinkage of blood vessels: Your doctor may use a laser to shrink abnormal blood vessels that cause bleeding. This treatment helps people with diabetic retinopathy. Widespread use of this treatment may reduce night vision.

Frostbite: In this procedure, the surgeon uses freezing agents on the inside of the retina to treat the retinal tear and improve the desired tear.

Injecting air or gas into the eye: This procedure, called pneumatic retinopathy, helps repair certain retinal detachment types. This method is also used in laser surgery.

Sunken eyes: This surgery is used to repair the retinal detachment. The surgeon uses silicone material to improve the retinal surface’s rupture, which may be used in other treatments.

Drain and replace the fluid in the eye: In this surgical procedure, called a vitrectomy, the surgeon removes the gel fluid, such as inside the eye, and then injects air, gas, or liquid into the eye. Injects. This procedure treats people with retinal detachment, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, infection, or retinal detachment.

Injecting medicine into the eye: In some cases, your doctor may consider injecting medication into your vitreous, which is usually suitable for people with macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, or damaged blood vessels.

Retinal implants: People who have severe vision loss or even blindness due to retinal disease are a good option for this surgery. Retinal prosthesis is one of the surgical options that are not widely available.



8 warning signs of retinal damage


  1. Eye diplopia

The two noses mean that there is no contrast between the colors, and this is because the eye receives less light due to damage to the retinal cells. The retina is the part of the eye with light-sensitive structures, and damage to it causes impulses along the optic nerve to the brain. Binoculars are often confused with blurred vision, and a person may experience both of these symptoms.


  1. The wavy sight of objects

This may be due to retinal damage, abnormal stretching of the epithelial membrane (located above the retina) on the retina and blood vessels. If people with diabetes can not keep their blood sugar levels steady, they may develop the disease over time. In general, visual distortion, for whatever reason, should be treated immediately by a physician. Do not drive if this problem occurs.


  1. See animated bugs

We all sometimes see shapes in the air that are moving. This is usually harmless and will go away after a few minutes. This usually occurs due to posterior vitreous detachment and is generally not a big problem, but if it persists for a long time. Prolonged and worsening may impair a person’s vision and indicate a severe retinal problem.


  1. Flashing lights

Seeing a flashing light is often associated with migraines. If you do not have a migraine and constantly feel like you are looking at a flashing light, there is probably a problem with your retina. The retina is sensitive to light and may send abnormal signals to the brain if damaged. Having this problem may disrupt a person’s daily life.

See a white halo around light sources.

People with retinal damage may sometimes see a white halo around light sources. This is because the damaged retina cannot produce a clear and transparent image as in the past, and ultimately this requires more focus to get more explicit photos.


  1. Blurred vision

Retinal detachment in more severe cases can cause vision problems and blurred vision. In such cases, the person should see a doctor immediately to have his or her vision examined. Separation of the retina from the dorsal layer and blood vessels causes a lack of oxygen required by the retinal cells. Eventually, it causes them to die, resulting in blurred vision. Blockage of blood vessels can also cause this problem in a person’s eye, and if the retinal artery is blocked, the blood supply to the retina is completely blocked, leading to blindness.


  1. Create a blind spot

This condition means that light-sensitive cells in the retina are damaged in a specific area of ​​the eye. For example, this problem may be caused by a physical injury in which one eye is affected at a particular point. In this case, it will not be possible to detect objects in all parts of the eye, and if you see a doctor in time, it is possible to solve this problem in some cases. You can also ask your doctor for advice on what you can do to prevent the disease from progressing.


  1. Decreased visual acuity

Decreased visual acuity is one of the most severe symptoms of damage to the retina. If you have sudden and severe vision problems other than cataracts, such as cataracts, you can see a doctor right away. However, you should see a doctor control this condition.

Having a retinal problem is not always accompanied by pain unless your eye has a painful infection or physical injury. Therefore, do not feel pain in your eye area.



Who is most at risk for retinal damage?

Although everyone should be aware of retinal damage symptoms, some people are more likely than others to develop these symptoms. If you have a family history of this disease, you will probably experience this disease as well. People who have previously been affected by certain eye diseases such as cataracts, surgery, etc., are more prone to retinal damage.

If you have the above characteristics, you should pay more attention to visual symptoms.


Other causes of retinal damage

In addition to genetic causes, physical illnesses, etc., other factors can also cause this disease.

Some of these factors are:

  • Chronic stress
  • Taking steroid drugs
  • drug use
  • Heart disease
  • Other circulatory issues


As mentioned earlier, retinal detachment may be caused by excessive accumulation of fluid behind the retina, but there is another risk factor that increases the likelihood of retinal detachment. These factors include:

  • Eye injury
  • Genetic problems
  • Cataract surgery
  • Existence of other eye disorders

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