Bowel cancer is the final part of your digestive tract. Most colorectal cancers start with non-benign tumors (blood cells) called adenomatous polyps. Over time, some of these polyps can develop into colon cancer. Polyps may be small and asymptomatic, so doctors recommend regular screening tests to help prevent colon cancer so that polyps can be identified before they become colon cancer.
Symptoms of bowel cancer:
Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include:
Changes in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation, or persistent changes in your bowel movements that last more than four weeks.
Direct bleeding or blood in your stool.
Frequent abdominal discomfort, such as cramping, bloating, or pain.
You feel that your gut is not empty.
Weakness or fatigue.
Unknown to weight loss.
Many people with colon cancer have no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms appear, they are likely to vary depending on the cancer’s size and location in your colon.
When to see a doctor:
Talk to your doctor if you notice colon cancer symptoms, such as blood in your stools or persistent changes in bowel habits. It is generally recommended that bowel cancer screening be started at age 50. Your doctor may recommend repeated or earlier screenings if you have other factors, such as a family history of the disease.
Causes of bowel cancer:
In most cases, the cause of bowel cancer is unknown. Doctors know that colon cancer occurs when healthy cells in the colon pose risks to their genetic design, DNA. Healthy cells grow and regularly divide so that your body can function normally. But when a cell’s DNA becomes damaged and cancerous, the cells continue to divide – even when new cells are not needed. As cells accumulate, they form a tumor. Over time, cancer cells can grow to penetrate the body’s natural tissues. Cancer cells can travel to other parts of the body.
Mutations in inherited genes increase the risk of colon cancer; Inherited gene mutations that increase the risk of colon cancer can be passed on through families, but these inherited genes are only associated with a small percentage of bowel cancers. Genetic mutations do not mean cancer, but they can significantly increase the risk of cancer.
The most common forms of colorectal cancer syndrome are:
People with HNPCC are more likely to develop colon cancer before the age of 50.
Association between diet and increased risk of colon cancer:
Studies of large groups of people have shown that having a typical western diet is associated with increased bowel cancer risk. A typical western diet is high in fat and low in fiber when people from areas with a typical low-fat diet are high in fiber. They move to areas where the regular Western diet is common, significantly increasing colon cancer risk in these people. It is unclear why this happens, but researchers are studying whether a high-fat, low-fiber diet affects the microbes that live in the large intestine, causing inflammation and cancer.
Risk factors for bowel cancer:
Factors that may increase the risk of colon cancer include:
Old age Causes of bowel cancer:
The majority of people with bowel cancer are over 50 years old. Bowel cancer occurs in young people but is very rare.
They have a higher risk of colon cancer than people of other races.
Personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps:
If you already have colon cancer or adenomatous polyps, you increase your risk of developing colon cancer in the future.
Increased risk of bowel cancer with inflammatory bowel disease:
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease, like Crohn’s disease, can increase the risk of colon cancer.
Hereditary syndromes affecting bowel cancer:
Which increase the risk of colon cancer;
Risk of bowel cancer with genetic syndromes:
They are passed down through the generations of your family, increasing the risk of colon cancer. These syndromes include familial adenomatous polyposis and inherited non-polyps colorectal cancer, also known as Lynch syndrome.
Family history of colon cancer:
If you have parents, siblings, or children with the disease, you are more likely to get colon cancer. If more than one family member has colon cancer or rectal cancer, your risk is even higher.
Low fat, high-fat diet:
Bowel cancer may be associated with a low-fiber, high-fat, high-calorie diet. Research in this area has had different results. Some studies increase colon cancer risk in people on a diet with red meat and processed meat.
A quiet lifestyle is one of the causes of bowel cancer:
If you are inactive, you are more likely to develop colon cancer. Regular physical activity may reduce the risk of colon cancer.
Diabetes is one of the causes of colon cancer:
People with diabetes and insulin resistance increase their risk of developing colon cancer.
Increased risk of colon cancer with obesity:
People who are obese have an increased risk of colon cancer and are at increased risk for colon cancer than ordinary weight people.
Smoking is one of the causes of bowel cancer:
People who smoke increase their risk of developing colon cancer.
Risk of developing bowel cancer with alcohol consumption:
Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of colon cancer.
Radiation therapy for cancer:
Radiotherapy that works in the abdomen to treat previous cancers increases the risk of colon cancer.
Ways to prevent bowel cancer:
Test for bowel cancer; People who have an average risk of developing colon cancer can start screening at age 50. But people at higher risk, such as those with a family history of colon cancer, should be screened sooner.
Change your lifestyle to reduce the risk:
You can take steps to reduce your risk of colon cancer by changing your daily life. Follow these steps:
Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants that may help prevent cancer. Choose fruits and vegetables to get the right amount of vitamins and nutrients.
Prevention of bowel cancer for people at high risk:
There are some medications to reduce the risk of colon cancer. However, there is insufficient evidence to recommend these drugs to people at moderate risk for colon cancer. For example, some evidence suggests that continued use of aspirin or similar drugs reduces colon cancer risk. But the dose and duration of treatment are not known. Taking aspirin daily has some risks, including gastrointestinal bleeding, so doctors usually do not recommend this as a prevention strategy unless bowel cancer risk increases.
Screening for colon cancer:
Doctors recommend special screening tests for healthy people without signs or symptoms to look for colon cancer.
Finding bowel cancer in its early stages provides the most excellent chance of cure.
Diagnosis of colon cancer
Patients receive a colonoscopy.
If the signs and symptoms indicate that you may have bowel cancer, your doctor may order one or more tests and procedures, including:
Colonoscopy is performed using a long, flexible, narrow tube attached to a video camera and monitor to see the entire bowel. If a suspicious area is found, your doctor can take a sample.
Failure to show bowel cancer by a blood test:
If there is bowel cancer, no blood test can detect it. But your doctor may test your blood for clues about your overall health, such as kidney and liver function tests. Your doctor may also test your blood for a chemical that is sometimes produced by colon cancer (a carcinoembryonic antigen or CEA).
This method is observed directly inside the rectum and lower parts of the large intestine through special devices. Half of all cancers can be diagnosed this way. In this method, the patient may feel pressure but will not feel pain.
If there is any mass along with these parts, it is necessary to remove part of the mass to examine under a microscope for the presence of tissue or cancer cells.
Genetic testing and counseling are recommended in families inherited from colorectal cancer, such as non-polyposis bowel cancer (HNPCC) or familial glandular polyp (FAP).
Because colorectal cancer is latent, screening is an early detection solution. In most people who reach the age of 50, a colonoscopy should be performed every 10 years.
Stages of bowel cancer:
Once you have been diagnosed with bowel cancer, your doctor will recommend tests to determine the cancer’s extent (stage). Staging helps to choose the right treatment.
Staging tests may include imaging procedures such as CT scans, abdominal scans, pelvic and chest exams.
The stages of colon cancer are:
Stage I cancer extends beyond the colon’s lining but does not extend beyond the colon’s lining.
The second stage of cancer has spread into the large intestine wall but has not invaded the lymph nodes.
Stage III cancer has invaded nearby lymph nodes but has not yet affected other parts of your body.
Stage IV cancer has spread to distant places, such as other organs, such as your liver or lungs.
Treatment of colon cancer:
The type of treatment your doctor recommends depends mostly on the stage of your cancer. The three main treatments are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
Colon Cancer Surgery: Step One
If your bowel cancer is minimal, your doctor may recommend surgery, such as removing the polyps during a colonoscopy. If your cancer is small, your doctor may be able to obliterate it during a colonoscopy.
Endoscopic mucosal removal:
Removal of larger polyps may require the removal of some of the intestinal wall. Polyps that cannot be removed during colonoscopy surgery may be removed with laparoscopic surgery. The surgeon may find samples of lymph nodes in the cancerous area.
Irritable bowel cancer surgery:
If cancer has spread into the bowel, your surgeon may recommend:
Lymph node removal:
In this method, lymph nodes are removed for sampling.
Surgery for advanced cancer:
If your cancer is very advanced or your general health is feeble, your surgeon may recommend surgery to clear the bowel or other conditions to improve your symptoms. This surgery is not done to treat cancer but to relieve signs and symptoms such as bleeding and pain; In some instances, cancer has only spread to the liver, but your general health is good. Your doctor may perform surgery to remove the cancerous lesion from the liver.
Chemotherapy may be used before or after this type of surgery.
Chemotherapy for bowel cancer:
Chemotherapy is used to kill cancer cells; If cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, chemotherapy for colon cancer can usually be used after surgery, and chemotherapy may help reduce the risk of cancer and cancer death. Sometimes chemotherapy may also be used before surgery to reduce cancer before surgery; Preoperative chemotherapy for rectal cancer is more common than bowel cancer. Chemotherapy can also help relieve the symptoms of colon cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
Eliminate the symptoms of bowel cancer with radiation therapy:
Radiation therapy uses powerful energy sources such as X-rays to kill cancer cells, reduce large tumors before surgery so that they can be removed more efficiently, or relieve colon cancer symptoms. Radiation therapy alone or chemotherapy is one of the standard treatment options for early cancer management.
The effect of onion and turmeric on cancer
The compounds in turmeric and onion reduce the size and number of intestinal polyps.