Cause, symptoms, and treatment of Aphthous stomatitis

The tongue is one of the strongest muscles in the body that gives us the ability to talk, eat and recognize different tastes. Hence, it is essential in its place, and certainly, any disorder or disease will have a serious impact on it. One of these common diseases is aphthous. Aphthous is a complication that can affect anyone at any age and can be very annoying and seen for various reasons.

What is aphthous?

A superficial, small, benign lesion in the soft tissue inside the mouth or lips, under the tongue, and on the gingival membrane is called aphthous or aphthous ulcer, one-centimeter size and is white or round, or oval. Unlike blisters caused by high fever in the mouth or herpes, these yellow sores, like herpes, do not form outside of the mouth and do not spread at all.

Types of aphthous:

Aphthous is divided into three main types: minor, major, and herpetiform.

minor pest

The small, circular pest is the most common type of aphthous that resolves within one to two weeks without causing sores. These sores are the size of a pencil tip and can be seen in groups or clusters. There are four to six aphthous in the mouth simultaneously, and the small aphthous is often inside the cheeks, lips, tongue, and gums.

major pest

A large aphthous is small, larger, and deeper, with irregular edges taking over six weeks to heal. A dentist should examine any aphthous that remains in the mouth for more than three weeks. Large aphthous are usually located near the tonsils, where the patient suffers a lot of pain.

Herpetic pest

Herpetic Aphthous stomatitis is about the size of a needle and is found in adults in groups of 10 to 100 people. The herpetic Aphthous stomatitis has irregular edges and heals after one to two weeks without leaving a scar.

Causes of oral and aphthous stomatitis

Oral ulcers are caused by damage to the immune system in the mucous membranes, but if we want to explain the reasons in more detail, you should know that oral ulcers occur in the following cases:

  • In case of minor injuries such as accidental biting of the tongue or brushing of the mouth
  • When you are stressed
  • After eating allergenic foods and some medications
  • When hormonal changes, for example, during the menstrual cycle
  • In case of deficiency of nutrients such as vitamin B12 or iron and folic acid
  • Damage due to prosthesis or wear
  • Viruses include the herpes simplex virus (herpes) or the varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox and shingles).
  • Digestive problems such as syllable or corn disease
  • When quitting smoking
  • Oral cancer (in sporadic cases)
  • Radiotherapy around the head and neck

Symptoms of aphthous stomatitis

  • Painful sores in the mouth, on the tongue, behind the roof of the mouth, or inside the cheeks
  • Round, white or gray sores with red edges
  • Symptoms of severe aphthous stomatitis
  • Fever
  • Physical laziness
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes
  • Symptoms of recurrent aphthous stomatitis
  • Pneumatic stomatitis recurs in children who are not in good general health. The cause of the disease is unknown, but the infection is not inherited.

Diagnosis of aphthous:

  • Blood test to count blood cells
  • Evaluation of iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12
  • Cultivation of the pest ulcer is different from the herpes virus (herpes virus) or is diagnosed as a secondary bacterial infection.

Who is most affected by aphthous?

20% of the world’s population suffers from oral thrush once or more. It is more common in women than in men and usually occurs in childhood or old age. It is interesting to know that cigarette smoke protects the mouth against aphthous.

Aphthous stomatitis is the most common ulcer that recurs over some time and has different types and causes. The duration of treatment for this aphthous stomatitis is usually 10 to 14 days, but there are ways to heal wounds quickly, including mouthwash and some medications.

When to see a doctor for treatment?

Mouth sores may sign a viral infection or a sign of nutrient deficiency or the onset of hay. A pest that does not heal after three weeks and does not go away, and has an unusual appearance should be shown to a doctor. In rare cases, this pest is a sign of oral cancer. Early detection of oral cancer can help with treatment.

Oral cancer is more common in the following cases:

  • Men
  • People over 45 years
  • Cigarette addicts
  • Aphthousnear, the mouth, and other parts of the body are caused by diseases related to the mouth, organs, or sexually transmitted diseases.

Wounds usually heal within a week or two without treatment, and the pain caused by aphthous stomatitis heals within a few days. If the sores are large, painful, or permanent, we need a doctor’s help.

Take care of yourself in the treatment of aphthous:

If the mouth sore is due to an infection, medications can be prescribed, and if the sore is too large and problematic, burning it can be used to close the sore. Most of the time, treatment means keeping the wound calm so that it heals on its own.

Washing: The wound pest is open, so it should be kept clean to prevent complications. Saltwater and mouthwashes containing sodium bicarbonate can be used for mouthwash.

Paste: Magnesium hydroxide, mouthwash containing sodium bicarbonate, or salt can be used to make the paste. This will soothe the wound, apply this paste on the pest with an ear cleaner and avoid swallowing it.

Antimicrobial mouthwash: Antimicrobial mouthwash kills bacteria, viruses, or fungi that cause oral infections if not brushed properly.

Laser treatment of aphthous:

One way to treat aphthous stomatitis is to use a laser, which a specialist should do to prevent more serious complications. Laser treatment of aphthous stomatitis has the following benefits:

  • The laser energy kills the virus that causes the pest.
  • Pest relief is immediate and profound.
  • Prevents the progression of the lesion after treatment
  • Enhances rapid and painless recovery
  • Treatment is a few minutes without anesthesia.

Treatment of aphthous:

If the sore causes pain and discomfort, your doctor may prescribe medication to relieve your symptoms. These wound-healing medicines can be obtained without a prescription from a pharmacy, but in all cases, it is best for the medicine we are taking to be prescribed by a doctor. Note that some mouth ulcer gels are not suitable for children under 16 years of age.

Medications used to treat aphthous:


If the mouth sore is painful, your doctor will prescribe a painkiller that should be applied directly to the wound. Benzydamine is one of these drugs that should be used as a mouthwash or spray. Benzydamine mouthwash irritates for the first time, but repeated use will relieve the irritation. If the irritation persists, consult your pharmacist or doctor.


Corticosteroids reduce inflammation and are found in oral ulcer medications to reduce inflammation. Reducing wound inflammation reduces their pain. As soon as mouth sores form, it is best to take corticosteroids. This treatment does not reduce the risk of aphthous stomatitis at any time after treatment.

Chlorhexidine mouthwashes

Mouthwashes contain elements that help treat tongue and mouth aphthous stomatitis. These mouthwashes contain local anesthetics, antibiotics, and antihistamines.

Local anesthesia

Anesthesia is injected into the pest before eating and drinking to prevent further pain. An example of this drug is lidocaine.

Supplemental vitamins and immunosuppressive drugs

Deficiencies of essential vitamins such as vitamin B12, iron, and folic acid cause aphthous in people and are injected with these drugs to treat them. In case of severe and painful aphthous stomatitis, immunosuppressive drugs are prescribed.

Hormone Therapy

Hormone therapy is prescribed for women who develop oral thrush during a certain period of the menstrual cycle. Oral contraceptives are used for this purpose.

How to get rid of aphthous quickly?


The properties of chamomile do not only include digestive problems; chamomile tea is the best treatment to reduce inflammation as soon as possible.

To treat herpes, put a chamomile tea bag in a cup of hot water and wait for the teabag to brew.

When the tea has cooled slightly, please put it back in your mouth to contact the pest and relieve the pain.

Coconut oil

Coconut oil has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties and is a favorite of many people.

Prepare coconut oil in a small bowl and clean the aphthous directly with an ear cleaner.

Do this several times and then view the results.


Honey has anti-inflammatory properties, but keep in mind that you should choose organic honey because it can do many things.

Gargle with warm water first and then put a lot of honey on the pest.

Do this 2 to 3 times a day and continue until you see changes.

Use red pepper to eliminate tongue aphthous.

Red pepper contains capsaicin, which can help relieve aphthous pain.

Mix hot water with ground red pepper, add enough red pepper not too hot.

Mix them to form a paste and apply the paste on the pest with an ear cleaner.

Repeat this 2 to 3 times a day to solve the problem.

Aloe vera is one of the natural ingredients to eliminate aphthous

Aloe vera is effective in repelling oral aphthous due to its sedative properties.

Prepare aloe vera gel and dissolve it in water and gargle, doing this about three times a day for complete recovery.

Alum powder is the best treatment for aphthous.

Alum powder always keeps the pest site dry; this improves healing and ensures that your aphthous disappear after a while.

Put alum powder the size of a pea on the pest and wait a minute.

Spit alum with your saliva and rinse it with water. The pain caused by the pest disappears after a day.

 Use yogurt

Yogurt balances the bacteria in the mouth and helps to cure the pest in the shortest possible time.

Using yogurt, which contains many live bacteria, is more effective.

Another way to treat mouthwash with yogurt is to add a little honey to taste better, but this is optional.


When you have a mouth ulcer, sucking on small pieces of ice will relieve the pain and inflammation of the ulcer. Cold reduces blood flow to the mouth. As a result, the pain and swelling of the pest are reduced.

Vitamin B supplements

Studies have shown that taking a vitamin B12 sublingual supplement, even in people who are not deficient in this vitamin, prevents the recurrence of aphthous. One thousand micrograms (1 mg) of vitamin B12, taken twice daily for six months, was beneficial.

On the other hand, taking vitamin B supplements; 300 mg of vitamin B1; 20 mg of vitamin B2; 150 mg of vitamin B6 can also be helpful, especially in people who are deficient in vitamin B1 because a deficiency of this vitamin is associated with an increased risk of aphthous.

Apple vinegar

Mix apple cider vinegar and warm water and use it as a daily mouthwash to heal mouth ulcers. Apple cider vinegar contains acetic acid, which can kill harmful bacteria while increasing the growth of good bacteria. This mouthwash as a natural antibiotic can be beneficial for mouth ulcers.

 Gluten-free foods

According to the cases mentioned about the causes of aphthous stomatitis. If you are one of those who think that you have many thrushes and that your body can not tolerate gluten, it is better to ask your doctor to determine the celiac disease test to determine the true source of your body.

Avoid sodium lauryl sulfate.

Try not to use toothpaste and mouthwashes containing sodium lauryl sulfate as this type of substance helps create and multiply aphthous stomatitis. A study conducted in Norway shows that “sodium lauryl sulfate” affects the underlying layers of the inner membrane of the mouth, which causes the recurrence of aphthous stomatitis in the affected person.


This simple and accessible solution is widely used and can be very effective in improving aphthous stomatitis. Rinsing the mouth with salt water for 30 seconds helps heal abscesses and wounds such as mouth sores by raising sodium chloride and collecting membrane water around the mouth.

Aphthous diet:

  • Drink plenty of fluids to relieve the pest, and drink fluids with a straw to reduce pain.
  • Eat a balanced diet; foods that relieve the pain of the pest include milk, liquid gelatin, yogurt, and ice cream.

Is aphthous preventable?

By maintaining good oral hygiene, you can reduce the number of mouth ulcers:

  • Avoid foods that irritate the mouth, including spicy or acidic foods
  • Avoid irritating the mouth with chewing gum
  • Treatment of oral and aphthous stomatitis by observing oral hygiene
  • Brushing after a meal and flossing daily to clear the mouth of food particles may irritate the wound.

Drugs that cause pest ulcers

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen
  •  Nicotine
  • Pills that need to be dissolved in the mouth, such as aspirin
  • Some drugs like cocaine

Do not confuse aphthous with other oral problems:

aphthous is often confused with the following problems because some patients consider any lesions in the mouth to be aphthous:

  • Oral cancer (these sores are not necessarily painful)
  • Herpes in children that causes small pimples in the mouth
  • Traumatic wounds such as burns, damage to the oral mucosa after hard brushing
  • Benign tumors of the mouth caused by hormonal changes
  • Oral fungi

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