Properties of zinc tablets and zinc supplements for body health
Zinc pills have many health benefits, including maintaining a balanced immune system, reducing inflammation, and acting as an antioxidant in the body. Zinc is an essential mineral found in all organs, tissues, and body fluids; as the second most abundant mineral in the body after iron, it plays a vital role in biological processes.
More than 300 enzymes are required for catalytic activity in the synthesis and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids, and other nutrients. They also play an essential role in stabilizing cellular and organ structures, immune function, wound healing. , Has cell division, growth, blood clotting, thyroid function, vision, taste, and smell, and in addition to having such vital functions, it is not stored in the body and must be provided through diet.
Suitable food sources for zinc include:
Red meat, seafood, dairy products, nuts, legumes, and whole grains absorb more zinc than animal meat and protein. Vegetables are not a good source because they contain phytate, a compound found in plants that inhibits zinc absorption. Because this substance plays a vital role in the immune system, its deficiency leads to many diseases, and therefore its lack is one of the most critical public health issues. Groups at risk for zinc deficiency include digestive disorders, vegetarians, pregnant and lactating women, alcoholics, and sickle cell disease.
Benefits of Zinc Pills, Oral Supplements, and Natural Resources:
Strengthen the immune system and reduce the risk of infection
Zinc is essential for the average growth and function of many immune cells. Due to its vital role in the immune system, even mild deficiencies can impair immune function and increase the risk of bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. In diseases associated with a weakened immune system (e.g., sickle cell disease, HIV infection, Down syndrome, and the elderly), this mineral pill can increase the activity of natural killer cells, the production of lymphocytes, and resistance. Recover against infection.
Studies in people with HIV with low zinc levels in the blood show that taking supplements is associated with reducing infections and a reduced risk of immunodeficiency.
However, supplements should be taken with caution, as too much zinc may worsen the disease’s symptoms. People with enteropathic acrodermatitis (a genetic disorder that affects absorption) experience high rates of infection. Zinc tablets in total therapeutic doses cause complete recovery.
Many studies have shown that zinc consumption in infants and children in developing countries reduces the duration, severity, and prevalence of acute and chronic diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and malaria.
Similar effects have been reported for other infectious diseases in humans, including shigellosis, leprosy, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, hepatitis C, and colds (increased Th1 cytokines).
On the other hand, large amounts of this mineral may suppress the immune system. A study in healthy men found that high doses of zinc reduced several immune functions, including activation of lymphocytes, phagocytosis, and neutrophils.
It has an antioxidant role.
One study in the elderly showed that zinc tablets could lower blood lipids, and another study showed that the mineral could reduce DNA breakage in women. DNA fractures are commonly used as parametric markers to assess the extent of damage caused by oxidative stress.
Zinc tablets also restore superoxide radical scavengers to normal levels in the sperm of men with asthenospermia (poor sperm motility) and protect mice from oxidative stress caused by radiation.
The mineral pill has also been shown to effectively treat Wilson’s disease, a disorder in which zinc accumulates in body tissues and prevents skin cells from dying from oxidative stress and bacterial toxins.
Help reduce and control inflammation.
Zinc inhibits many inflammatory cytokines. Studies in the elderly (often with zinc deficiency) show that zinc reduces inflammation by reducing cytokines and other inflammatory markers and various inflammatory disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and treating and improving acne. Asthma has a significant effect.
Tablets are reduced in age-related inflammatory markers in older mice.
To fight asthma and allergies.
In response to grass pollen, the allergen, which is a significant cause of allergic rhinitis in many parts of the world, increases regulatory lymphocytes and reduces peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Low levels of zinc in the blood are associated with severe asthma symptoms in children. One study found that zinc pills improved symptoms (such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath) in children with asthma.
It can reduce inflammation and overreaction of the airways in a model of mice with allergic inflammation and asthma. Allergens sensitive to zinc can inhibit the death of respiratory epithelial cells (by inhibiting caspase-3).
Preventing transplant rejection
Many studies show that zinc can inhibit the unwanted immune response by stimulating regulatory lymphocytes. A study in healthy men indicated that this mineral could also prevent rejection by preventing infections caused by immunosuppressive disorders.
In laboratory models of mice with multiple sclerosis (MS) and osteoarthritis, zinc could improve these diseases’ symptoms by reducing inflammation, suppressing T lymphocyte proliferation, and increasing regulatory lymphocytes. Mixed culture of lymphocytes stimulates T lymphocytes in the regulator and reduces bonding by reducing inflammatory cytokines and T lymphocytes.
Similarly, this mineral reduced heart transplant rejection in the rat model by preventing transplant tissue death (by inhibiting caspase-3). In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, stiffness in the morning and after walking was observed after a change in the positive changes in joint swelling.
Improve cognitive function and protect nerve cells
Zinc tablets can improve cognitive function in people with zinc deficiency who have experienced an ischemic stroke. A double-blind trial in children showed that the pill helped enhance nerve function, especially attention and logical skills, compared to controls.
A randomized trial showed that zinc tablets in infants and toddlers increase their activity, mental development, and motor quality. Zinc consumption in elderly Alzheimer’s patients protects against cognitive decline by lowering blood copper levels, which can be toxic to the brain.
Many animal studies show that zinc in moderate concentrations can protect the nerves while maintaining everyday learning and memory levels.
In the Alzheimer’s mouse model, the pill reduces pathological factors associated with disease progression (e.g., amyloid-beta and tau protein). It improves mitochondrial function and brain-derived neurogenic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Another study showed that zinc pills increased spatial memory and memory in mice.
Accelerate wound healing
It has been shown to heal skin wounds, and its deficiency is associated with delayed wound healing. Animal and human studies show that zinc can accelerate the healing of burns and other wounds after surgery.
Zinc oxide, if applied topically, improves the healing process of shear wounds in rats.
Help treat mental disorders.
A study in OCD patients showed that adding zinc to fluoxetine treatment could reduce symptoms. Because zinc can prevent the release and transmission of glutamate, it can also improve the symptoms of OCD.
According to one study, zinc tablets combined with methylphenidate (a CNS stimulant) reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity in children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder).
A study in men with schizophrenia found that zinc combined with risperidone improved the disorder’s symptoms (e.g., aggression, hallucinations, and delirium). This effect is related to the antioxidant and anti-depressant properties of zinc.
To prevent autism
One study found that people with autism had lower levels of zinc than non-autistic people. In this study, after treatment with zinc and vitamin 6B, the severity of autism symptoms (i.e., awareness, hyperactivity, concentration, eye contact, sensitivity to sound, sensitivity to touch, and seizures) were reduced.
Studies show that zinc therapy during pregnancy prevents the development of autistic behaviors (e.g., social problems, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive flexibility) in mouse children, suggesting a link between deficiency. A recent study showed that zinc is reversed in autism in brain cells. The author of this study writes:
“Our work shows that even cells with genetic mutations associated with autism can respond.”
Reduce stress levels and improve mood
The effectiveness of zinc tablets in treating mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety has been clinically proven in animal models. It also increases brain-derived neurogenic factor (BDNF), which is low in depressed people.
One study found that zinc consumption improved overall mood by increasing overall BDNF levels in overweight people.
Help treat inflammatory diseases.
This mineral can cure many inflammatory diseases such as rosacea or red blood vessels. A study in people with rheumatoid arthritis showed that zinc could significantly reduce the symptoms of the disease.
Due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, zinc supplementation has similar effects in treating other inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and eczema.
It may also be effective in treating dandruff; spasm is a skin disorder that causes the skin to turn brown. Zinc treatment helps reduce the severity of the disease, minimizes side effects, and causes damage to the skin.
A human study showed that sunscreen contains more zinc than titanium oxide to prevent the skin’s premature aging, effectively protecting against UV rays.
Help reduce the symptoms of kidney disease.
Consumption of zinc in patients with chronic kidney disease improves overall kidney function and reduces many complications. For example, in heart disease, sexual function improves by reducing the inflammatory effect of oxidative stress and cholesterol and increasing hemoglobin to the immune system.
Prevent hair loss
In a clinical study among men, due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-androgenic effects on the skin, it was found that topical application of zinc can improve hair growth in bald men, which is very effective.
Another study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome showed that zinc supplementation positively affected several symptoms, including alopecia (hair loss). Zinc treatment also reduces hair loss in patients undergoing steroid surgery.
Protect the liver
Zinc supplements effectively treat and reduce liver disease symptoms and protect the liver by preventing most liver damage mechanisms. In patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, this supplement improves liver function and prevents excessive copper accumulation, damaging the liver.
They also improve patients with hepatitis C, which can lead to liver ulcers if left untreated.
Help strengthen bones
Studies have shown that zinc can increase bone density and strength by increasing bone formation and preventing bone loss.
In rat osteoplast cells, the consumption of zinc stimulates bone formation. Another study found that zinc tablets increased bone markers in healthy men. While inhibiting bone breakdown markers (such as parathyroid hormone and PGE2), zinc could suppress bone resorption activity in the bone marrow of cultured mice.
Zinc protects animals and humans from many bone-related complications due to its bone-strengthening effects.
Prevention of heart disease
Studies have shown that zinc levels are low in people with hardened arteries, heart disease, chest pain, and those who have had a heart attack. One study found that high rates of heart failure were associated with zinc deficiency.
Other studies have shown that high doses of zinc can prevent and treat angina (chest pain) in atherosclerosis patients. Zinc pills can also protect the heart from stroke damage in mice.
Increased insulin sensitivity
Zinc ions can bind to insulin receptors and activate insulin signaling pathways. It reduces the excess insulin released by pancreatic cells by mimicking insulin, thus protecting pancreatic tissue from damage.
This mineral also improves the solubility of insulin in pancreatic cells and increases insulin dependence on its receptor. Due to zinc’s essential role in the processing, storage, and secretion of insulin, its deficiency can increase insulin resistance.
One study found that diabetics may have low zinc levels. Other studies have found a high percentage of zinc deficiency in type 2 diabetic patients.
Studies in women show that consuming more of this mineral reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Numerous studies have shown that zinc tablets reduce fasting blood sugar levels and increase insulin sensitivity in animal and human models of diabetes.
The mineral also reduced the severity of diabetic neuropathy (nerve pain), oxidative stress, and triglyceride levels in type 2 diabetics.
Help you lose weight.
Leptin is a hormone that plays an essential role in controlling appetite and weight. Zinc restriction reduces the production of leptin from fat cells in mice and humans. Improving the level of this mineral in men with zinc deficiency increases blood leptin levels.
Zinc protects the body against radiation toxicity in mice and bone marrow-producing cells. Reduces oxidative stress (measured by MDA levels) and stabilizes antioxidant enzymes in rat red blood cells after exposure to radioactive iodine.
Zinc therapy is also able to protect mouse sperm cells from radiation-induced cell death.
Reduce body odor
Bromidrosis (body odor) is usually accompanied by an increase in the bacterial flora – which mainly contains staphylococci and the bacterium chain – in the axilla. Clinical studies have shown that zinc effectively reduces foot and armpit odor due to its antibacterial effect when used topically.
Increase health and fertility in men
Zinc concentration in semen is positively related to sperm count and motility. This effect is probably due to zinc’s role in stabilizing cell membranes and DNA (by reducing oxidative damage) of sperm cells and increasing spermatogenesis (new sperm cells).
Low to moderate doses (12 to 12 mg/kg) appear to increase mice’s reproductive function. The concentration of zinc in the prostate and testicles is very high and is involved in testosterone synthesis.
In infertile men (with low testosterone in the blood), taking zinc pills increases sperm count, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and fertility. The effects of zinc on increasing testosterone may increase libido and improve sexual function in men with erectile dysfunction (often also deficient in testosterone).
It also reduces oxidative damage to the testicles. In response to oxidative stress caused by cigarette smoke, zinc in mice can maintain testicular function (such as testicular weight, sperm concentration, and measured testosterone).
Improve oral health
Zinc deficiency can lead to excessive plaque formation and worsen the inflammatory process in gum disease. Zinc-containing mouthwashes are effective in reducing plaque growth.
Similarly, a study of children in slums found that consuming 15 mg of zinc daily for ten weeks was associated with reducing dental plaque.
Help prevent cancer
The zinc deficiency increases the risk of cancer of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach; gastrointestinal tissues are more prone to this disease because they are exposed to toxins. Zinc deficiency in the blood is also linked to cancers of the head, neck, lungs, prostate, bladder, and ovaries. Restoration of the average surface is essential for the function of tumor killer cells.
Zinc can also stop tumor growth by reducing glucose uptake, preventing new blood vessels’ development, and causing cell death in animal and human cancer cells.
Has antimicrobial properties
Zinc in high doses prevents the growth of several species of bacteria, especially gram-positive species. Simultaneously, it binds antibacterial activity against aerobic and anaerobic organisms in the root canal and prevents Staphylococcus aureus growth.
The antimicrobial effects of zinc against the typical wound flora in rats have also been demonstrated.
Help treat epilepsy and prevent seizures.
Numerous studies show that zinc levels are deficient in patients with epilepsy. In a study of children with epilepsy, zinc use reduced seizures in 31% of children treated.
Zinc tablets can also reduce the delay (periodic between seizures) of fever attacks in mice.
Improve the growth process
In several studies, the pill has had significant effects on children’s weight and height, especially in low-weight and short-lived children. Analysis of growth studies in children showed that a dose of 10 mg of zinc per day for 24 weeks resulted in a net increase of about 0.37 cm in children receiving zinc tablets than children receiving placebo. It also increases muscle mass in children.
Protect the gastrointestinal tract
This pill has a protective effect in various animal and human models in various intestines in various gastrointestinal tract diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, alcohol poisoning, and colitis). Stabilizing the intestinal healing process in mice stabilizes the nasal mucosa and reduces gastric and small intestinal lesions.
Zinc also protects the intestinal mucosa from alcohol-induced damage in mice. This substance can eliminate intestinal leakage and, therefore, may reduce the risk of inflammatory bowel disease.
A study in patients with indigestion showed that Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer inflammation was negatively associated with zinc concentrations. That zinc increased the risk of gastric cancer by controlling gastritis.
Help improve sleep quality.
Women and children with higher zinc levels in their blood have better sleep quality; a study in infants found that zinc pills can increase sleep duration.
Help stimulate appetite and treat nervous appetite.
One of the first signs of zinc deficiency is the loss of appetite. A study in mice showed that oral zinc supplementation could rapidly stimulate food intake (increasing orexin and neuropeptide Y).
Clinical studies in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) show a significant association between this disease and low zinc levels in the blood. Many studies have reported zinc supplementation, weight gain, muscle mass, appetite, taste sensitivity, and food intake in patients with AN.
Increase skin health
Zinc is beneficial for various skin conditions (including acne, warts, rosacea, eczema, psoriasis, spasms, and dandruff). In people with acne, the groups that took zinc pills (oral zinc) experienced a significant improvement compared to the placebo groups.
Clinical trials in patients with viral warts have resulted in the complete disappearance of warts in most people who have taken zinc pills. Zinc has a similar effect in treating herpes simplex (genital warts caused by the herpes simplex virus 1 and 2).
Studies in people with rosacea (a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by tiny blood vessels and red bumps on the face) show that taking zinc can reduce symptoms.
Fight against extreme fatigue.
Low levels of zinc in the blood are associated with many chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms (e.g., fatigue, depression, and difficulty concentrating). One study found that zinc levels in people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) were significantly lower than in controls. The severity of symptoms was negatively related to zinc levels in the blood.
This study concluded that zinc might effectively reduce CFS symptoms due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Inflammation of the gut (caused by a leak in the heart) is joint in people with CFS. In one study, intestinal leakage treatment with a combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents, including zinc, significantly improved CFS patients’ symptoms.
Control and prevention of blood clots
Human studies show that zinc is involved in regulating prothrombotic (clot formation) and anti-thrombosis (anti-clotting) factors in platelets and pulmonary blood flow.
Hypersensitivity (high zinc levels in the blood) can cause blood to clot, while hypoxemia (low zinc levels in the blood) can lead to prolonged blood clotting time. Both conditions cause platelet aggregation and abnormal bleeding.
One study found that repairing zinc levels in men with zinc deficiency led to normalized platelet aggregation and blood clotting time.
Improving pregnancy outcome
Low zinc levels in the blood are associated with pregnancy complications (e.g., miscarriage, preeclampsia, prolonged pregnancy, preterm delivery, and abnormal fetal growth). Studies have shown that zinc pregnancy supplements (in women with zinc deficiency or underweight women) can reduce the risk of preterm birth and prevent harm to the baby.
One study found that Indian mothers taking zinc pills had longer pregnancies and heavier babies. Another study of pregnant women (with low zinc levels in the blood) found that zinc tablets (25 mg per day) significantly increased infants’ weight in the second half of pregnancy.
Improving women’s health
Zinc deficiency is associated with hormonal disorders that can lead to ovarian dysfunction, menstrual irregularities, and infertility. Numerous studies have shown that oral consumption of zinc (mefenamic acid only) can reduce its severity and duration. This is the time of menstrual pain in women.
These effects are probably due to prostaglandin’s inhibition by zinc in the uterus, which leads to a reduction in painful cramps in the lower abdomen. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin resistance may increase androgen hormones, leading to baldness, body hair growth, irregular menstruation, and infertility.
Studies have shown that zinc tablets in women with PCOS can lower insulin levels and improve symptoms (e.g., hair growth and baldness).
Zinc levels in women’s blood with endometriosis (a disorder in which intrauterine tissue grows outside the uterus) are low.
Help relieve pain
Some animal studies have shown that zinc has analgesic properties. In sciatica, zinc chloride injection significantly reduces severe pain sensitivity, depending on the dose.
Another study showed that zinc-containing salts could relieve mice’s pain exposed to several painful stimuli (such as chemicals and thermal stimuli).
In patients with chronic liver disease, it reduces the frequency and severity of muscle cramps. Zinc is believed to partially relieve pain caused by NMDA receptor binding (as an antagonist), which is effective in causing pain.
Reduce tobacco addiction
Zinc levels are low in smokers, and studies in mice have shown that zinc reduces the severity of morphine (drug) dependence, while zinc uptake increases the severity of withdrawal symptoms.
Based on these results, an article in a review of previous research showed that zinc tablets could reduce the risk of addiction in people who use chronic pain relief due to their pain-reducing effects and low toxicity.
Increased taste sensitivity
Zinc deficiency is associated with a decrease in taste. This effect may be because (or carbonic anhydrase VI), a zinc-dependent enzyme, is less active when zinc concentration in the saliva is low.
One study found that zinc supplements increased taste (assessed by the salt detection threshold) in Indian adolescent girls (often zinc deficient).
Avoid blindness and eye health problems.
Aging-related macular degeneration is one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly due to oxidative stress. Studies have shown that zinc tablets can reduce the disease’s progression by preventing oxidative damage to the retina.
Zinc can protect the eye against diabetic retinopathy (which can lead to blindness) by preventing the death of retinal capillary cells and new blood vessels (growth of new blood vessels).
This effect of zinc is due to its ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation (through inhibition of NADPH oxidase and NF-κB), which play an essential role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Night blindness is one of the first signs of vitamin A deficiency. One study showed that this vitamin could increase vitamin A’s effect on restoring night vision in pregnant women (low zinc levels).
Help treat hearing disorders
Zinc deficiency is associated with hearing loss in mice and can be treated with zinc tablets. This result is probably due to zinc protective properties against toxins in the ear structure (e.g., cochlea and atrium). Zinc levels in the blood of people with tinnitus are low. One study reported that taking zinc tablets (50 mg daily) for two months could reduce tinnitus severity in 82% of patients.
Another study showed that zinc’s addition to oral corticosteroids in patients with sudden hearing loss (sudden onset of unknown causes) was associated with a more significant improvement in symptoms than corticosteroids.
One study found that zinc supplements could reduce middle ear infections in healthy children in low-income areas.
Increasing life expectancy in humans
Oxidative stress accelerates the aging process, its main component being copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu / Zn – SOD), a powerful enzyme that neutralizes superoxide radicals.
One study found that worms and mice with genetically high levels of SOD lived longer. Mutations in the SOD gene are associated with many age-related diseases (such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer).
Inflammation also plays a role in the aging process, and zinc tablets have been shown to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and infection in the elderly.
Therefore, zinc can increase life expectancy due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, especially in the elderly, who are often zinc deficient.
Help treat cystic fibrosis.
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that can cause respiratory problems, lung infections, and an inability to gain weight. A study in patients with cystic fibrosis showed that zinc tablets could improve lung function, energy intake, and infection rate.
Increase athletic performance
A study in wrestlers showed that strenuous exercise could significantly lower thyroid hormones and testosterone, leading to fatigue and burnout. However, zinc pills can prevent this problem, and this suggests that zinc intake (in physiological doses) may play a role in a person’s athletic performance.
In another study, thyroid hormone consumption (i.e., 3T and 4T) increased resting metabolism. Zinc tablets also prevent the harmful effects of computer monitor radiation on thyroid hormone levels in computer workers.
Reduce the side effects of chemotherapy
Mucosal ulcers are a side effect of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Studies in patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy have shown that zinc supplements can reduce oral mucositis severity.
Dysgeusia (sensation of metal taste in the mouth) and disomy (odor change) can also occur during chemotherapy. One study found that consuming 100 mg of zinc daily for 4-6 months improved dystonia symptoms and disomy in patients with carbonic anhydrase deficiency (Dustin).
This effect is because it stimulates the production of carbonic anhydrase VI, an enzyme in saliva involved in the growth of taste buds.
Reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a group of disorders (such as obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol) that can increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes. A study in children with metabolic syndrome showed that these pills reduce insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood sugar, cholesterol, and body mass index.
It helps increase mitochondrial function.
In a study in mice, zinc consumption increased the electron transfer system and oxidative phosphorylation in the liver mitochondria, resulting in increased energy production (ATP).
Treatment and relief of arsenic poisoning
A study on patients with chronic arsenic poisoning showed that zinc combined with spirulina extract effectively reduced melanosis and keratosis symptoms.